Punctuation

Comma (,)

Who + Comma

  • Good evening, all!
  • Let’s complete this session.
  • I am also planning to discuss a bit about speaking if time allows me.
  • We have so far discussed 24 topics.
  • Here is the 25th one.
  • Where to write comma before “who?”
  • In smaller sentences, do not write comma before who.

This letter will introduce Ms Tailor who was admitted with the diagnosis of decompensated schizophrenia.

  • You can see that there is no comma here.
  • However, in longer sentences we need to add a comma before “who.”

This letter will introduce Ms Tailor, who had been under your care in 2016, now admitted with the diagnosis of decompensated schizophrenia.

NB – When there a comma, another comma should be used to close it.

Use a Comma Before:

  • Especially
  • If

Use a Comma after:

  • However,
  • In addition to these,
  • Additionally,
  • Besides, (Not recommended for OET Writing)
  • So, (Not recommended for OET Writing)
  • Moreover, (Not recommended for OET Writing)

Please note, that!

With comma Without comma
Please note, he is allergic to penicillin. Please note that he is allergic to penicillin.
Use comma after “note.” Do not use comma before “that.”

Capstarting

Capstarting or starting a word with a “cap”ital letter is a serious rule in English. You need to capstart a number of words that we discussed earlier in Proper Nouns. Here are some:

  • Names of people
  • Names of places

Capstarting Disease Names

Some diseases are named after people or places:

  • James Parkinson – Parkinson’s Disease
  • Aloysius “Alois” Alzheimer – Alzheimer’s Disease
  • Hans Asperger – Asperger’s Syndrome
  • John Langdon Down – Down Syndrome
  • Thomas Hodgkin – Hodgkin’s Disease

Capstarting Medicine Names

If you start a medicine name with capital letters, that’s okay but do the same for all medication names.

Incorrect Correct
Panadeine forte Panadeine Forte
Panadeine forte panadeine forte

Most words in the address line should be capital.

Incorrect Correct
The Charge nurse The Charge Nurse
Redeemer hospital Redeemer Hospital
Dear Sir / madam, Dear Sir / Madam,

Written by Biju John

Love for English begins with understanding its unknown rules. Biju John lives on the internet, teaching OET, IELTS and PTE. More than a million students have thanked him from their heart.

Discharged?

Patient’s Name