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OET Reading with Summary (S1) Method – Blepharitis


What is blepharitis?

Blepharitis is an inflammatory condition of the eyelids. It can affect people of all ages, but it is more common in older people.

The eyelid margins, as well as having eyelashes protruding from their anterior (front) surface, have the openings of oil glands (Meibomian glands) behind the lashes.

There are three main types of blepharitis:

Anterior blepharitis: This affects the front of the eyelids around the eyelashes and may be due
to seborrheic dermatitis (similar to dandruff). This may also involve the scalp, face and ears, or
be due to bacterial (staphylococcal) infection.

Posterior blepharitis: This mainly affects the back of the eyelids, around the Meibomian glands.
It is often associated with rosacea (a skin disease causing redness of the face).

Mixed anterior and posterior blepharitis: a combination of the above.

What are the symptoms of blepharitis? The symptoms of blepharitis are:

  • crusting, swelling and redness of the eyelids
  • dryness of the eye
  • a gritty feeling and burning sensation in the eye
  • tiny flakes on the eyelids similar to fine dandruff
  • sensitivity to light
  • blurred vision
  • loss of eyelashes / in-growing eyelashes
  • styes (an infection at the root of an eyelash) on the eyelid
  • small ulcers on the eyelids.

How is blepharitis diagnosed?

In most cases the diagnosis is confirmed by an ophthalmologist (specialist eye doctor) using a microscope called a slit-lamp. The microscope gives a magnified view of the different parts of the eye. With blepharitis the eyelids appear red and inflamed with crusts and scales around the bases of the eyelashes. The Meibomian gland openings may be blocked and the lid may have associated notches, styes and Meibomian gland cysts. The tear film, which coats the eye, is often uneven. This can be identified by staining the tear film with a yellow dye called fluorescein. Inflammation and loss of skin cells on the cornea (the epithelium) may also be seen with this fluorescein staining.



What treatments are available?

Blepharitis is a long-term condition. There is no cure but symptoms can be improved and controlled. It may take some time before treatments are successful. Your ophthalmologist may recommend the following treatments to ease your symptoms:

  • Cleaning your eyelids to remove the crusts and scales from the eyelid margins and unblock the eyelid glands. To begin with you may need to clean your eyelids twice a day. In the long term, you will need to clean them at least two or three times a week to prevent blepharitis from returning.
  • Artificial tear drops to treat dry eye symptoms and tear film instability.
  • Antibiotic eye-drops and ointments to treat any serious infection.
  • Mild steroid eyedrops to treat any associated corneal and conjunctival inflammation. These are only given for short courses and only under the supervision of your ophthalmologist.
  • Antibiotics – Some forms of blepharitis such as posterior types and those associated with rosacea need to be treated with a course of antibiotic tablets (tetracyclines). You may need to take these for several months. If you are pregnant or breast feeding you should not take tetracyclines. You may not be able to take them if you have had liver disease or kidney disease. Please tell your ophthalmologist if you have had a history of these conditions.
  • Long-term use of tetracyclines has been linked to the failure of oral contraception, but this is rare. You should not take tetracyclines with milk or antacids.
  • Anti-yeast shampoo may be prescribed if you have a form of blepharitis linked to the overgrowth of yeast in your skin.
  • Omega 3 supplements have been shown to reduce the symptoms of blepharitis and eye dryness. They are not available on prescription, but you can buy them from a range of pharmacies and health food shops.
  • Gentle face washes and shampoos containing tea tree oil can be of benefit by reducing the population of the demodex mite, which can sometimes contribute to someone getting blepharitis. These can be bought from most pharmacists and supermarkets.

What happens if I do not get treatment?

Blepharitis will not go away. It may get worse and irritate the front surface of your eye (the cornea). This could lead to discomfort and infection.


How do I clean my eyelids?

Wash your hands. Soak a flannel/wash cloths with warm water(make sure the water is not too hot).Close your eyes and gently press the flannel against them for five to seven minutes. This will help to soften any hardened oil secretions. An alternative to the flannel/washcloth method is to purchase a device such as an ’eye bag’ over the internet. These bags can be heated in a microwave and then placed over your eyes in a similar manner to the flannel. They have the advantage that they release heat more slowly and unlike a flannel do not have to be re-soaked in warm water every few minutes to maintain their heat.

Massage your eyelids using your forefinger. Move in a downward motion for the upper eyelid and an upward motion for the lower eyelid. Soak a cotton bud in cooled boiled water. Use the cotton bud to clean your eyelids. Gently rub the cotton bud along the edge of the lower lid. It helps to tilt the lid outward using a finger from your other hand. The upper lid is more difficult to clean. It is best done with the eyelid closed and pulled slightly over the lower lid. This makes sure that you can’t poke yourself in the eye.

You can add ointments and drops after you’ve finished cleaning your eyes.

Questions 1 – 7

For each question, 1-7, decide which text (A, B, C or D) the information comes from. You may
use any letter more than once.

Questions 8-14

Answer each of the questions, 8-14, with a word or short phrase from one of the texts. Each
answer may include words, numbers or both.

Questions 15-20

Complete each of the sentences, 15-20, with a word or short phrase from one of the texts. Each
answer may include words, numbers or both.

  • Question of

    In which text can you find information about which fingers to be used to massage the eyes?

    • A
    • B
    • C
    • D
  • Question of

    In which text can you find information about contra-indications in the use of a specific class of drugs?

    • A
    • B
    • C
    • D
  • Question of

    In which text can you find information about how to make hardened eye secretions soft? ____.

    • A
    • B
    • C
    • D
  • Question of

    In which text can you find information about what blepharitis may result from and result in?

    • A
    • B
    • C
    • D
  • Question of

    In which text can you find information about the proportion of patients reporting mild inflammation of the eyelids?

    • A
    • B
    • C
    • D
  • Question of

    In which text can you find information about the kind of bathing care advised?

    • A
    • B
    • C
    • D
  • Question of

    In which text can you find information whether children can contract blepharitis?

    • A
    • B
    • C
    • D
  • Question of

    Which skin problem is frequently linked to posterior blepharitis?

    • Psoriasis
    • Hives
    • Rosacea
    • Shingles
    • Skin Lesions
  • Question of

    Once eyes are cleaned, what can be added to the eyes?

    • only ointments
    • only drops
    • ointments and drops
  • Question of

    What solution is recommended to treat the symptoms of dry eyes and tear film instability?

    • Immunosuppressive drug
    • artificial tear drops / artificial tears
    • Tear duct plug
    • Glasses
  • Question of

    Which bacteria can cause blepharitis?

    • Streptococcus
    • Enterococcus
    • Lactobacillus
    • Staphylococcus
    • Proteus mirabilis
  • Question of

    What is the prescribed alternative to using a flannel or wash cloths?

    • an eye-bag
    • weave net
    • canal
  • Question of

    How frequently should the eyelids be cleaned ideally?

    • once a day
    • twice a day
    • thrice a day
  • Question of

    If blepharitis is left untreated, what might finally be caused?

    • discomfort
    • infection
    • discomfort and infection
  • Question of

    The growth of demodex population can be curtailed by the shampoos and face washes having _______.

    • clay
    • clay and coconut oil
    • tea tree oil
  • Question of

    As in the case of _____, anterior blepharitis can be caused by seborrhoeic dermatitis.

    • mites
    • dandruff
    • bacteria
  • Question of

    No blepharitis patient reported very severe ______.

    • swelling
    • itching
    • dryness
  • Question of

    A type of microscope known as _____ is often used by an ophthalmologist in diagnosing blepharitis.

    • a slit-lamp
    • a sit-lamp
    • a slid lamp
  • Question of

    It is recommended that cotton buds be soaked in _____ before using them to clean the eye lids.

    • boiled water
    • cooled water
    • cooled boiled water
  • Question of

    Over ____ per cent of blepharitis patients reported mild blurred vision.

    • 10 / ten
    • 20 / twenty
    • 30 / thirty

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Written by Biju John

Love for English begins with understanding its unknown rules. Biju John lives on the internet, teaching OET, IELTS and PTE. More than a million students have thanked him from their heart.

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