Reading 10 will guide you through choosing the right method for a particular question type. Believe me, some methods can be applied for multiple question types while only one method is apt for others. Let’s have a closer look!
Reading Part C, Paragraph 1 (Sample)
Millions of people who suffer sleep problems also suffer myriad health burdens. In addition to emotional distress and cognitive impairments, these can include high blood pressure, obesity, and metabolic syndrome. ‘In the studies we’ve done, almost every variable we measured was affected. There’s not a system in the body that’s not affected by sleep,’ says University of Chicago sleep researcher Eve Van Cauter. ‘Every time we sleep-deprive ourselves, things go wrong.’
7. In the first paragraph, the writer uses Eve Van Cauter’s words to:
- explain the main causes of sleep deprivation.
- reinforce a view about the impact of sleep deprivation.
- question some research findings about sleep deprivation.
- describe the challenges involved in sleep deprivation research.
Reading Part A (Only 2 texts)
|Previous studies have shown a wide variation in anti-SSA prevalence across different RA populations. It is possible that the increased frequency of anti- SSA in AA subjects may be due to an increased frequency of secondary Sjogren’s Syndrome. Co-existent RA and SS may then partially explain the increased disease activity and worse clinical outcomes seen in AA RA patients. However, it was not possible to determine the prevalence of Sjogren’s Syndrome in our cohort with the available data. The AA group also had a higher prevalence of anti-SSB than the CAU group (4.26% vs. 1.08%). This was not a statistically significant difference; however, there were only 5 total patients that were anti-SSB positive. The biological and clinical implications of the increased prevalence of anti-SSA and ANA in AA RA patients are currently unknown. However, several studies have suggested that autoantibody profiles may be clinically significant. Specifically, antiSSA has been shown to be associated with more severe disease in multiple connective tissue disease and it is also involved in the molecular pathogenesis of immune dysregulation in Sjogren’s Syndrome.|
|In RA, a predominance of Th17 cytokines, including IFN-γ and TNF have been suggested to be of pathological importance. IFN-γ induces several chemokines including CXCL9, CXCL10, and CXCL11. Increased CXCL10 has been detected in the serum and synovial fluid of RA patients and in the saliva of Sjogren’s Syndrome patients compared to healthy controls. Additionally, this chemokine may have clinical significance as a human phase II clinical trial using an anti-CXCL10 monoclonal antibody (MDX-1100) showed a significantly increased response rate in RA patients who had an inadequate response to methotrexate therapy. The study revealed an association between RF seropositivity and increased CXCL10 levels but it found no association between antiSSA positivity and CXCL10. Therefore, while the increased clinical severity seen in AA RA patients may be associated with a higher prevalence of anti-SSA, the presence of this autoantibody does not appear to directly affect the expression of CXCL10.|
For each of the questions, 1-7, decide which text (A, B, C or D) the information comes from. You may use any letter more than once.
In which text can you find information about;