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Day 5 Reading Test

Reading Sub-test Part B

In this part of the test, there are six short extracts relating to the work of health professionals. For questions 1-6, choose the answer (A, B or C) which you think fits best according to the text.

Now, proceed to the questions below. Let’s Play!

Biopotential Amplifiers

Biosignals are recorded as potentials, voltages, and electrical field strengths generated by nerves and muscles. The signals need to be amplified to make them compatible with devices such as displays, recorders, or A/D converters for computerized equipment. Amplifiers adequate to measure these signals have to satisfy very specific requirements. They have to provide amplification selective to the physiological signal, reject superimposed noise and interference signals, and guarantee protection from damages through voltage and current surges for both patient and electronic equipment. Amplifiers featuring these specifications are known as biopotential amplifiers.

Implantable Cardiac Pacemakers

The modern pacing system is comprised of three distinct components: pulse generator, lead, and programmer. The pulse generator houses the battery and the circuitry which generates the stimulus and senses electrical activity. The lead is an insulated wire that carries the stimulus from the generator to the heart and relays intrinsic cardiac signals back to the generator. The programmer is a telemetry device used to provide two-way communications between the generator and the clinician. It can alter the therapy delivered by the pacemaker and retrieve diagnostic data that are essential for optimally titrating that therapy.

External Defibrillators

Defibrillators are devices used to supply a strong electric shock to a patient in an effort to convert excessively fast and ineffective heart rhythm disorders to slower rhythms that allow the heart to pump more blood. External defibrillators have been in common use for many decades for emergency treatment of life threatening cardiac rhythms as well as for elective treatment of less threatening rapid rhythms. The most serious arrhythmia treated by a defibrillator is ventricular fibrillation. Without rapid treatment using a defibrillator, ventricular fibrillation causes complete loss of cardiac function and death within minutes.

Thermopositive (warm) wet treatment

The warm wet treatment includes showers and baths, i.e. used therapeutically in addition to washing. They have an overall effect. They are used in the treatment of scars, burns, when preheating the body before exercise, when replacing bandages after surgery, etc. Baths are used on part of or all of the body. Essential oils can be also used in bath therapy. Warm wet therapy is widely used in balneology.

Special oral care

Patients with febrile illnesses, after a stroke, with paralysis of the facial nerve, after surgery, after injury, or unconscious and dying patients suffer from an accumulation of mucus in their mouth and coated mucous membrane. A patient can breathe in the accumulated mucus and the mucous membrane coatings cause bad breath. Defects on the tongue make sucking and chewing difficult. Oral hygiene must be administered as required, several times per day.

Plaster bandages

Plaster bandages are impregnated with plaster. They provide reliable fixation of the broken bone. It is a hydrofile bandage which is impregnated with fine plaster. The bandages are wrapped in moisture-proof packaging; moisture would harden the plaster and the bandage would be spoiled. Before use, the bandage is soaked in a 40 °C hot water; the bandage is not moved at this point so as not to spill the plaster. Then it is removed and gently wrung and then immediately attached. Attaching requires experience as it must be done quickly – the time for moulding the bandage is short (2 – 3 minutes).

  • Question of

    1. The manual informs us that the Biopotential Amplifiers:

    • Record potentials, voltages, and electrical field strengths generated by nerves and muscles
    • Amplify biosignals to make them compatible with devices such as displays or recorders
    • Provide amplification selective to superimposed noise and interference signals
  • Question of

    What does this manual tell us about the programmer?

    • Used to provide communications between generator and lead
    • Can alter the therapy delivered by the pacemaker
    • Retract essential diagnostic data for optimally titrating the therapy
  • Question of

    What does this extract from a handbook tell us about external defibrillators?

    • Used only in the treatment of life-threatening cardiac rhythms
    • Used mostly for elective treatment of less threatening rapid rhythms
    • Convert excessively fast and ineffective heart rhythms to slower rhythms
  • Question of

    The notice is giving information about:

    • Therapeutic uses of showers and baths
    • Importance of essential oils in bath therapy
    • When and where the warm wet treatment is used
  • Question of

    The guidelines establish that the healthcare professional should:

    • Administer oral hygiene several times per day
    • Aware of accumulation of mucus in certain patients
    • Provide oral care several times per day, if needed
  • Question of

    The guidelines require those undertaking the preparation of plaster bandages to:

    • Do attaching quickly, only if you are experienced
    • Avoid spilling the plaster during the process
    • Soak plaster and the bandage in a 40 °C hot water

Written by Biju John

Love for English begins with understanding its unknown rules. Biju John lives on the internet, teaching OET, IELTS and PTE. More than a million students have thanked him from their heart.

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