Dear Participant, OET30 is different from the traditional methods of practices-after-practices without acquiring skills. The key feature of OET30 by English Melon is building up skills first and then putting them in practice. To build up your skills, we have the following tasks:
- Labeling Method (R)
- Transcription Method (L)
- Grammar Training (SWiRL)
- Group-wise Speaking
- Live Corrections (Writing)
- Story Writing (SW)
- Quizzes (SWiRL)
- Word Power-Up (SWiRL)
Dos and Don’ts
- From today, you will have just a single trainer!
- Take your time but never miss a task! Stay motivated.
- In case you have questions, openly ask them in the OET30 Telegram Group.
- Be active in the group and be ready to help others.
- Have faith in you, in me and in the Almighty!
Kindly note that OET30 will follow a very flexible but fixed time table for everyone’s convenience. All the time references are in Indian Standard Time (IST)
|10.00 AM||Publishing Page|
|11.00 AM||Live Correction 1|
|12.00 PM||Live Correction 2|
|02.00 PM||Live Role Play|
|03.00 PM||Live Correction 3|
|07.00 PM||Live Correction|
Please note, you should have done the following preparation for participating OET30:
- Install Google Docs (if you are using a mobile phone / tab).
- Use only Google Chrome browser.
- You should have a notebook and pencil. Use only a pencil to practice.
- Practice with and without a headphone.
- Get in touch with your group members and get a speaking partner on Day 1 itself.
NB: Use a computer (laptop / desktop) for better experience. However, high end mobile phones can be used.
Finally we are learning Tenses today. Get ready to spend more time with Tenses because it is most important in English.
Simple present is mostly used in explaining a patient’s social history (W) and the same can be seen mostly in S, R and L. It is very important to learn Simple Present very carefully. Look at these examples:
- Ms Roy lives alone in a two bedroom apartment in the suburbs.
- For the last three years Mr Sam smokes excessively.
Simple present is a safe way of combining past, present and future together.
- A retired nurse, Ms Stallone self injects her medicines. (This sentence suggests that Ms Stallone used to, still does and will continue injecting in the future, too)
- She is due to be discharged on April 20.
- However, she moves independently with the help of walker.
- Socially, Ms Stanley lives alone and does not have children.
- Her neighbour, Mariya, visits her often in her house.
- Her sister and brother reside in away from the country.
Present continuous is not very common these days because the same can be used in Simple Present. However, in some cases you will need to use present continuous while Speaking. Look at these examples:
- I am writing to request home health services to Ms Stanley who suffers from a cluster of age related diseases.
- At present she is recovering.
Present Perfect or H Tense is widely used these days. Present perfect tense is used to explain:
- Recent tests the patient has undergone,
- Recent medications the patient has been prescribed,
- the patient’s medical history that has not ended so far.
- Remember, present perfect tense does not mention time!
- Any action that started but not ended is present perfect.
- Ms Oven has a family history of osteoarthritis in particular and joint pains in general.
- With regards to his medical and social history, he has been seen by many Physicians and Psychiatrists, yet no noted improvements have been reported.
- Since birth he has been taken care by his attendant Ms Jennifer.
- She has been instructed to use arm slings and is completely restricted from weight lifting is advised for 4 weeks.
- In addition to this, Endocrinologist has advised her to maintain a chart of her blood sugar levels.
In all the above quoted situations, has, has been, have and have been are used. In all those situations, actions are initiated but not completed – at least the effects of the actions are prevailing.
- “He has been advised to undergo this surgery within three weeks.” (Means, the patient has not yet undergone the surgery although the doctor has advised for surgery.
- “The patient has undergone surgery and is recuperating well…” (Only the surgery is done but has not terminated)
- Ms Stanley has been suffering from celluloid of lower extremities, renal insufficiency, obesity and hypertension.
As you know, past tense describes actions that started and completed in the past. In OET there are many instances of past tense – especially in the admission history and medical history.
- A medical linear accelerator (LINAC) customizes high energy x-rays or electrons.
- It features several built-in safety measures.
- Then it allows these electrons to collide with a heavy metal target to produce high-energy x-rays.
- These high energy x-rays are shaped as they exit the machine to conform to the shape of the patient’s tumor and the customized beam is directed to the patient’s tumor.
- The beam is usually shaped by a multileaf collimator that is incorporated into the head of the machine.
- The patient lies on a movable treatment couch and lasers are used to make sure the patient is in the proper position.
- The treatment couch can move in many directions including up, down, right, left, in and out.
- The beam comes out of a part of the accelerator called a gantry, which can be rotated around the patient.
- Radiation can be delivered to the tumor from many angles by rotating the gantry and moving the treatment couch.
- Patient safety is very important and is assured in several ways.
- Before treatment is delivered to the patient, a treatment plan is developed and approved by the radiation oncologist in collaboration with the radiation dosimetrist and medical physicist.
Simple past is commonly used in the introduction, medical history and in the medical management of the letter. Remember, if a particular date is given, never fail to put that in simple past.
- Ms Roy was admitted to our care on 12th December with severe abdominal pain.
- Ms Ray was admitted on 12th May with complaints of…
- … for which she commenced treatment on ibuprofen 100 mg…
Simple Past means “done and completed at a time.”
- She went home in the evening. (Look at the time!)
- He consumed poison on 31st April. (look at the time!)
Use only simple past in sentences that start with:
- At the time of admission + Ms Roy was found extremely stressed.
- On admission + the patient complained of urine incontinence…
Past Perfect or Had + V3 is used mostly in past medical history, that is, to express an action that happened before another action.
- Ms Roy had developed symptoms of uterus cancer before she had got her tests done.
Past tense and present perfect tense are very much similar.
- The patient requested a wheelchair to be sent to his home. Simple Past
- The patient has requested a wheelchair to be sent to his home. Present perfect.
- On July 3, 1977, the first magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) exam on a live human patient was performed.
- MRI has become an extremely useful non-invasive method for imagining internal bodily structures and diagnosing disease.
- Isidor Isaac Rabi was born on July 29, 1898 in Rymanow, Austria.
- In 1899 his family moved to New York, where they lived in poverty in the Lower East Side before moving to Brooklyn in 1907.
- Rabi’s parents were Orthodox Jews, and though Rabi never practiced religion as an adult, he was always influenced by his religious upbringing.
- He felt that doing good physics was “walking the path of God.”
- Rabi graduated from Cornell University in 1919 with a degree in chemistry.
- He wasn’t really captivated by chemistry, and spent three years not doing much of anything before deciding to go to graduate school in physics at Cornell.
- After finishing his PhD in 1927, Rabi went to Europe, where he spent time working with the giants of quantum mechanics, including Sommerfeld, Bohr, Pauli, Stern, and Heisenberg.
Look at these examples:
- She will be transferred tomorrow.
- He will have to follow these advice most closely to prevent reinfection.
- It will be greatly appreciated if you could take over Ms Tan’s case immediately.
Future Continuous Tense
Look at these examples:
- He will be moving to his daughter’s home in Canterville.
- It will deliver the dose as prescribed.
- It is routinely checked by a medical physicist to ensure it is working properly.
- Your radiation oncologist will collaborate with a radiation dosimetrist.
- They will double-check this plan before treatment begins.
- The funding we received will help us build these structures
- The project called PHASER will develop a flash delivery system for X-rays.
- The Stanford Department of Radiation Oncology will provide about $1 million over the next year for these efforts and support a campaign to raise more research funding.
- We want to come up with innovative ways to manipulate the proton beam that will make future devices simpler, more compact and much faster.
- The PHASER project will be capable of steering the proton beam.
- We hope that our work will contribute to making the best possible treatment available to more patients in more places.
- Nearly two-thirds of all cancer patients in the United States will undergo radiation therapy as part of their treatment.
Sentences for Labeling
- Intravenous fluids are important components of appropriate care for hospitalised children.
- Reports in the medical literature and warnings issued in other countries have highlighted the risks associated with use of low sodium content fluids.
- The importance of appropriate glucose content has also been identified, and emerging evidence suggests risks associated with high chloride.
- Individual or facility based responses to the changing literature, along with the interim recommendations of a national expert group convened under the auspices of Children’s Healthcare Australasia (CHA), have led to variable practices across NSW Health hospitals with consequent inconsistencies and risks.
- The NSW Chief Paediatrician was tasked to engage clinical experts, HealthShare and a range of other partners in the development of statewide standards across all NSW facilities.
- The resultant Standards for Paediatric IV Fluids: NSW Health addresses fluid content, bag size, labeling, administration, procurement and storage.
- A succinct Statement of the Standards presents the key messages and related actions on a single page.
- Pick any OET Listening Audios / Listen to the short audios below.
- Get your headphone, pen, notebook and the device to play back the audio.
- Start playing back and listen carefully.
- As you listen to the audio, start writing down the conversations in the notebook.
- You will have to pause, stop, rewind and forward the playback head many times.
- Complete writing the transcription.
NB: When you play back large audio files, listen continuously till the end and write the transcription, leaving blank spaces whenever you fail to understand a particular word. After reaching the end of the audio, replay and fill the blanks.
Listen to the short audios below and, applying the paragraph labeling you have mastered by now, write the short labels of the audio in a word or in a few words.
Being a nurse, I believe I have many obligations to my patients and society like caring people in their critical situations, giving a homely environment until they get discharge by assisting them as their own sister. This gives pleasure in my work and the families whose loved ones are sick. I don’t care about the award or appreciation from others. In simple words I love my profession. Besides, I get many opportunities to update the new studies and developments in the field. The disappointment is to feel the heart of struggling patients those who are suffering from disabilities in their tender age and falling terminally ill that amounts to immature death.
Being a nurse, I must work with other health care professionals, especially doctors, physiotherapist, surgeon, specialists, etc. When I look back, almost 80% of cases were managed with a spirit of team work and effective communication. However, the situations arise when on-call doctors do not respond in the wake of emergency situations. Lodging a complaint against these staff members or discussing these matters on departmental meetings only add to the chaos and disturb the team spirit.
- Speak with your speaking partner (Recommended)
- Write the entire conversation and share in the group (Ultimate)
- Take the Quiz below (Mandatory):
Read the case notes below and complete the writing task which follows.
Dalmia Iota is a female patient presenting in the clinic in which you work.
- Dalmia Iota
- DOB: 19/05/97
- Address: 100 Dust Hill Road, Devon Port
- Presented: An hour ago.
- Single, graphic designer
- Youngest in family
- Social drinker
- Smoker – 7 years, 10-15/day
- Father also has asthma
- Mother – hypertension
- Younger brother – ADHD
- Grandfather – type 2 diabetes
- Asthma, since age 4.
- Two previous asthma related hospital admissions, most recent 2015
- Allergic rhinitis
- Anxiety disorder
- Fractured tibia (2002)
- Mild food poisoning – diarrhoea
- Encouraged electrolytes
- Medical certificate written for work
- Short of breath – ongoing
- Nocturnal cough 7 nights p/w
- Ventolin use ↑
- Abdomen lax & non-tender
- P: 76 bpm
- T: 36.5°C
- BP: 110/70
- CXR: Clear
- FBE: Normal
- PEF: 400L/min
- Ventolin (albuterol)
- Symbicort (budesonide/formoterol) – twice daily
- Zyrtec (cetirizine)
- Noncompliance with preventive inhaler – “forgets”
- Discussed smoking cessation options (nicotine patches, support services)
- Assess and evaluate
- Continue w. current meds.
Using the information given in the case notes, write a referral letter to Pulmonologist, Dr Jan Walker, at “Epstein Clinic”, 393 Victorian Road, Richmond, Melbourne.
In your answer:
- Expand the relevant notes into complete sentences
- Do not use note form
- Use letter format
- The body of the letter should be approximately 180 – 200 words.
You need to develop skills to convert broken words into meaningful sentences:
- Mrs Edith
- Presenting symptoms:
- Right upper quadrant abdominal pain.
- Only medical
- No need for surgical intervention.
- Weight loss 3 kg
- Prognosis is positive.
Mrs Edith was presented to our health care with the complaints of vomiting, nausea and right upper quadrant abdominal pain. For this, after a series of investigations, she was diagnosed as the same after which her treatment was commenced on medical care as there was no need for surgical intervention. During hospital stay, she had a weight loss of 3 kg and her prognosis is positive.
- Ms Edith
- Past medical history
- Known hypertensive 1994
- Now in control.
- Previous hospitalization
- Jaundice, treated successfully.
- Today’s review
- Found comfortable, doing well
- Discharge today.
- Arrange nurse, provide post medical care.
Ms Edith’s past medical history reveals that she is a known hypertensive since 1994 although now it is in control. Besides, she had a hospitalization for jaundice and it was treated successfully. During today’s review, Mrs Edith was found comfortable and doing well and her discharge has been scheduled for today. In the light of the above, it would be beneficial if you could arrange a nurse to provide post medical care to render Mrs Edith personal care for her speedy recovery.
Writing Marking Criteria!
On this Day 5, let me explain the 7 criteria upon which OET assesses your letters. If you focus only on a few but not all, you will not B!
- Clearly mention the purpose of the letter in the first paragraph and expand the same in the last paragraph.
- Write the purpose of writing the letter very quickly and efficiently.
- It checks if your communication tells something clearly or not.
- The content criterion examines a number of aspects of the content:
- All key information is included
- Information is accurately represented
- Audience awareness is key here. The writing needs to be appropriate to the reader (and their knowledge of the case) and what they need to know to continue care.
- Conciseness and Clarity
- Health professionals value concise and clear communication.
- This criterion, therefore also considers:
- Whether unnecessary information from the notes is included and how distracting this may be to the reader, i.e. Does this affect clarity?
- Is there any information that could be left out?
- How well the information (the case) is summarised and how clearly this summary is presented to the reader.
- Genre & Style
- Referral letters and similar written handover documents need to show awareness of genre by being written in a clinical/factual manner (e.g. not including personal feelings and judgements) and awareness of the target reader through using professional register and tone.
- The use of abbreviations should not be overdone thereby assuming common prior knowledge.
- A nurse should not write medical terms when a letter is written to a patient’s parents (especially if they are not very educated).
- Can you use abbreviations?
- Yes, if the recipient understands.
- Yes, if written to a medical colleague in a similar discipline, then judicious use of abbreviations and technical terms would be entirely appropriate,
- No, if the recipient doesn’t understand.
- No, if the medical colleague was in a totally different discipline.
- No if a letter was from a specialist to a GP, more explanation and less shorthand would be desirable.
- Minimize medical jargon.
- Organization and Layout
- Health professionals value documents that are clearly structured so it is easy for them to efficiently retrieve relevant information.
- This criterion examines how well the document is organised and laid out.
- It examines whether the paragraphing is appropriate, whether sub-sections within the document are logically organised and whether key information is clearly highlighted to the reader so that it is not easily missed.
- The criterion also considers whether the layout of the document is appropriate.
- OET letters are not like IELTS writing tasks.
- In OET you should not show your linguistic skills.
- Language should be used only to communicate, not to impress!
- Your words should not obstruct retrieval of information.
- Use accurately, appropriately.
- Your language should not interfere with reading comprehension or speed.
- Handwriting! The most important!
- Suppose OET sent you the case note and its answer a day before the exam and sent you!
- You learnt the letter by heart and went to the exam!
- In the exam hall you wrote the letter just as OET sent you the answer but your handwriting is readable to only one person in the world – and that is you.
- What if your handwriting is not legible?
Common complaints of patients who have received thyroidectomy include dysphonia (voice dysfunction) and dysphagia (difficulty swallowing). One cause of these surgical outcomes is recurrent laryngeal nerve paralysis. Many studies have discussed the effectiveness of speech therapy (e.g., voice therapy and dysphagia therapy) for improving dysphoria and dysphagia, but not specifically in patients who have received thyroidectomy.
Diagnosing Knee Injuries:
The initial evaluation by the health care professional will begin with a medical history. Whether the evaluation is ___ (1) immediately after the injury or weeks later, the physician ___ (2) ask about the mechanism of injury to help isolate what structures in the knee ___ (3) damaged. Is the injury due to a direct ___ (4) that might suggest a fracture or ___ (5) (bruise)? Was it a twisting injury that causes a ___ (6) or meniscus tear? Was there an injury associated with a ___ (7) foot to place stress and potentially tear a ligament?
Further questions will ___ (8) other symptoms. Was swelling present, and if so, did it occur ___ (9) or was it delayed by hours? Did the injury prevent weight-bearing or walking? Does going up or down steps ___ (10) pain? Is there associated hip or ankle pain? Is this an isolated injury, and have there been other occurrences?
Past medical history and information on medications and allergies will be helpful information to learn about the patient.
Physical examination of the knee ___ (11) with inspection, in which the physician ___ (12) look at the bones and make certain they are where they belong. With fractures of the kneecap or patellar tendon injuries, the kneecap can slide high out of position. Also, patellar dislocations, where the kneecap ___ (13) to the outside or lateral part of the knee, are easily evident on ___ (14). Looking at how the knee is held is also important. If the knee is held slightly ___ (15), it can be a clue that there is fluid in the joint space, since joint space is maximal at 15 degrees of flexion.