Formation of a sentence is like cooking food!
- Shuck the corn.
- Pour the water into the pressure cooker and place a trivet on top.
- Place the corn in the pot, stacking two on top.
- Cook at high pressure for 2 minutes.
- Quick release the pressure.
- Carefully remove the lid and serve immediately.
- Take a subject (Nouns & pronouns – Medicine, Ms Mitra, He…)
- Insert adjectives to add taste (Feverish, hypertensive, diabetic…)
- Take the right piece of a verb and garnish with adverbs (Heavily, often, now…)
- Drop a few sticks of prepositions (In, on, under, between…)
- Sprinkle a few slices of spicy phrases or idioms (Bring up, get away…)
- To harden the preparation, add connectors (And, because, but…)
Below we are cooking sentences. Join the preparation!
Today’s sentences for Sentence Labeling
- It is characterized by excessive deposition of extracellular matrix.
- Therefore, there is significant heterogeneity in organ progression and prognosis.
- Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is a heterogeneous group of parenchymal lung disorders that share common radiologic, pathologic, and clinical manifestations.
- It is characterized by lung parenchyma damage, accompanied by inflammation and fibrosis, and fibrosis is often incurable.
- The fibrosing forms of ILD are often incurable, and are associated with significant morbidity and mortality.
- SSc is often accompanied by ILD.
- The incidence of SSc-ILD in the relevant literature ranges from 45% to 90%.
- A recent European League Against Rheumatism Scleroderma Trials and Research analysis revealed in a cohort of 3,656 SSc patients that ILD was present in 53% of cases with diffuse cutaneous SSc and in 35% of cases with limited cutaneous SSc.
Likely labels for the sentences above:
- Features of X – This sentence often presents a list of features the subject matter has.
- Subject matter – Subject matter explain what this paragraph is all about.
- Research report – The report based on a research study.
- Incidence of X in Y – The popularity of the subject matter in areas like literature, education, research, etc.
- Association – Explains the other areas to which the subject matter is connected / linked / associated.
Today’s Paragraphs for Labeling
Generalized seizures are divided into absence seizures and tonic-clonic seizures. Absence seizures were previously called petit mal seizures and usually have onset in childhood, but they can persist into adulthood. Absence seizures present with staring spells lasting several seconds, sometimes in conjunction with eyelid fluttering or head nodding. These seizures can be difficult to distinguish from complex partial seizures that may also result in staring. Usually, absence seizures are briefer and permit quicker recovery. Generalized tonic-clonic seizures were previously called grand mal seizures; these seizures start with sudden loss of consciousness and tonic activity (stiffening) followed by clonic activity (rhythmic jerking) of the limbs. The patient’s eyes will roll up at the beginning of the seizure and the patient will typically emit a cry, not because of pain, but because of contraction of the respiratory muscles against a closed throat. Generalized tonicclonic seizures usually last one to three minutes.
Seizures that begin focally can spread to the entire brain, in which case a tonic-clonic seizure ensues. It is important, however, to distinguish those that are true grand mal, generalized from the start, from those that start focally and secondarily generalize.
Secondarily generalized seizures arise from a part of the brain that is focally abnormal. Drugs used to treat primary and secondary generalized tonic-clonic seizures are different: patients with secondarily generalized tonic-clonic seizures may be candidates for curative epilepsy surgery, whereas primarily generalized tonicclonic seizures are not surgical candidates, because there is no seizure origin site (focus) to remove.
Atonic seizures are epileptic drop attacks. Atonic seizures typically occur in children or adults with widespread brain injuries. People with atonic seizures suddenly become limp and may fall to the ground and football helmets are sometimes required to protect against serious injuries. A myoclonic seizure is a brief un-sustained jerk or series of jerks, less organized than the rhythmic jerks seen during a generalized tonic-clonic seizure. Other specialized seizure types are occasionally encountered. Tonic seizures involve stiffening of muscles as the primary seizure manifestation: arms or legs may extend forward or up into the air; consciousness may or may not be lost. By definition, the clonic (jerking) phase is absent. Classification can be difficult, because stiffening is a feature of many complex partial seizures.
Tonic seizures, however, are much less common than complex partial or tonic-clonic seizures. Patients can have more than one seizure type. One seizure type may progress into another as the electrical activity spreads throughout the brain. A typical progression is from a simple partial seizure, to a complex partial seizure (when the patient becomes confused), to a secondarily generalized tonic-clonic seizure (when the electrical activity has spread throughout the entire brain). The brain has control mechanisms to keep seizures localized. Antiepileptic medications enhance the ability of the brain to limit the spread of a seizure.
- Pick any OET Listening Audios / Listen to the short audios below.
- Get your headphone, pen, notebook and the device to play back the audio.
- Start playing back and listen carefully.
- As you listen to the audio, start writing down the conversations in the notebook.
- You will have to pause, stop, rewind and forward the playback head many times.
- Complete writing the transcription.
NB: When you play back large audio files, listen continuously till the end and write the transcription, leaving blank spaces whenever you fail to understand a particular word. After reaching the end of the audio, replay and fill the blanks.
Listen to the short audios below and, applying the paragraph labeling you have mastered by now, write the short labels of the audio in a word or in a few words.
Audio Labeling 1
Audio Labeling 2
That’s really an interesting question! When I first thought seriously about immigration, IELTS came to my mind because among my friends most of them were familiar with IELTS and OET is still not very popular in my neighborhood. Besides, we did not have an OET center nearby. Honestly speaking, I made two months’ rigorous preparation for IELTS and then was ready to book my exam when, you know, all were talking only about OET! I made my own kind of investigation and began to strangely feel that OET must be my choice because the questions are all, medical.
You are a school nurse at Toohey Hill Primary School and recently there has been an outbreak of threadworms at the school. In response to this situation write a general letter of advice to the parents outlining common symptoms, identification, occurrence, treatment and medication and hygiene relating to threadworms.
Signs and Symptoms
- Intense itchy feeling around the anus
- Restless sleep
- Teeth grinding while asleep
- Loss of appetite
- Occasionally slight stomach pains associated with gastrointestinal upsets
- Can cause urinary tract infections
- NB. Many people with threadworms show no symptoms
- Resemble fine pieces of cotton thread up to 1.5cm long.
- Appear on the outside surface of faeces
- Active during the night
- Common in warm weather – despite good sanitation
- Crowded living conditions promote the spread of worms between family members
- Children 5-14 most susceptible – adults can be infected by eggs spread around in home/school environment
- Outbreaks noted at schools / day cares.
- Vermox or Combantrin-1 available from pharmacists. Consult doctor or pharmacist first
- Not suitable for pregnant women or children under two.
- Only works on adult worms present in the intestine when medicine taken.
- Treat whole family at same time to minimize risk of reinfestation
- Recommend treat everyone again two weeks after initial treatment if reinfestation suspected.
- Morning shower or bath to remove eggs laid during night
- Ensure everyone always uses own towel and facecloth.
- During treatment change night clothes/underwear of infected person daily.
- Vacuum carpets often, especially bedrooms, to remove dust.
- Change bed-sheets frequently, especially first 7 to 10 days after start of treatment.
- Keep nails of infected people short to reduce chance of eggs being stored there.
- Wash hands thoroughly after using bathroom and before meals
- Keep toilet and bathroom area clean.
Using the information provided, write a letter addressed to “ Parents of students
at Toohey Hill Primary School” providing information on threadworm and its
In your answer:
- Expand the relevant notes into complete sentences
- Do not use note form
- Use letter format
The body of the letter should be approximately 180–200 words.
You need to develop skills to convert broken words into meaningful sentences:
Now let’s expand simple notes to complete sentences. It is like adding flesh, blood and skin to a skeleton, that is, you have to add many words to the given 2 or three words.
- Lives alone → Mr Peter lives alone.
- Can walk → He can walk.
- Needs assistance → However, he needs assistance with walking.
- Dressing done → His dressing is done.
- No Children → Mr Peter has no children.
- Brother lives in London with family, two children → He has a brother who lives in London with two children.
- Her neighbor, Mona, visits her house once in a week → Mona, her neighbor, visits her house once in a week.
- Incontinence of bladder & bowel at times → She also suffers from incontinence of bladder and bowel at times.
- Husband works in factory: setting up small import business → Her husband works in a factory and is setting up a small import business simultaneously.
- Said English at night school → She said that she learns English at a night school.
- Children (boy 13, boy 11, girl 7) all at school; working hard to adjust → With three school-going children between 7 and 13, she finds it hard to adjust.
- Strong family commitment to school/work/study/business → (In spite of all this) She maintains very strong family commitment with school, work, study and business.
- After operation, hard to manage new baby → After this operation, she finds it hard to manage the new baby.
- No other family in Australia → It is worth considering that he has no other family in Australia.
Study the pairs of notes and see how they are connected:
- Earns a high pension;
- Unwilling to spend on treatment
→ Although Mr Peter earns a high amount as pension, he is unwilling to spend on (his) treatment.
Exercise 1. Combine the two parts with a Relative Pronouns like who, whose, whom, for whom, for which, etc.
- I am writing to refer Mr Walker. He is presented with features suggestive of pro-static carcinoma.
- Ms Sharman is a new resident of our center. She has been suffering from severe dementia since 2011.
- Ms Sharman enjoys eating a lot of food. She has gained about 10 kg of weight over the last 5 months.
- Mr Oakes is recuperating from a myocardial infarction. He needs cardiac rehabilitation.
- Ms Sharman has had diabetes mellitus since 2000. For this she consumes a diabetic.
Exercise 2. Combine the two parts with Conjunctions like and, but, because, although, if, etc.
- His urinalysis was normal. However, PSA was recommended along with counselling for smoking cessation and lifestyle changes.
- She was non-compliant with her medications. She was also found to be agitated and aggressive.
- He is a chain smoker and social drinker. He has also a positive family history of pro-static cancer.
Exercise 1 – Answers
- I am writing to refer Mr Walker who is presented with features suggestive of pro-static carcinoma.
- Ms Sharman is a new resident of our center who has been suffering from severe dementia since 2011.
- Ms Sharman enjoys eating a lot of food due to which she has gained about 10 kg of weight over the last 5 months.
- Mr Oakes is recuperating from a myocardial infarction for which he needs cardiac rehabilitation.
- Ms Sharman has had diabetes mellitus since 2000 for which she consumes a diabetic diet.
Exercise 2 – Answers
- Although his urinalysis was normal, PSA was recommended along with counselling for smoking cessation and lifestyle changes.
- She was not only non-compliant with her medications, but also agitated and aggressive.
- Apart from being a chain smoker and social drinker, he has also a positive family history of pro-static cancer.
A recent study, reported on by Medical News Today, found that the faster a person walks, the longer they may live, with older adults benefitting the most from a brisk pace. Medical professionals have long used gait speed as a marker of health and fitness among older adults, but the new research asks a slightly different question: Does a slow gait speed in midlife indicate and predict accelerated aging?
Write a simple story with the following starting:
Starting – “When Nr Laksmi reached the railway station, it was past 9.00 pm. Her train would take 10 more minutes to depart the platform. Running into the coach and finding her seat number 12, she began to suspect if she would reach Ms Alfia’s residence in time.”