Reported speech is most important for English speakers. If you do not know how to ‘report’ someone’s ‘speech’ or dialogue, you will have a hard time speaking. Believe yourself, this is quite easy to learn reported speech.
Type 1 – Statements | That
- Identify the speaker
- Identify the listener.
- Shift the tense a step back.
Type 1.1 “said”
|She||said||that||she was ill.|
More – Questions
- She said, “I am ill.”
- Mark said, “It is this bag I have been looking for.”
- The monkey said, “I have left my heart on the tree.”
- The wicked woman said, “I don’t fear anyone.”
- They said, “the sky was heavily clouded yesterday.”
- Ms. Williams said, “the quality of water has improved.”
- Mother said, “it is worth watching this movie.”
- “All these fruits are raw,” said the woman.
- “This road heads to Norway,” said the pedestrian.
- The old lady said, “I have seen the two wars and lost my children.”
- She said that she was ill.
- Mark said that it was that bag he had been looking for.
- The monkey said that it had left its heart on the tree.
- The wicked woman said that she didn’t fear anyone.
- They said that the sky had been heavily clouded the day before.
- Ms. Williams said that the quality of water had improved.
- Mother said that it was worth watching that movie.
- The woman said that all those fruits were row.
- The pedestrian informed that the road led to Norway.
- The old lady said that she had seen the two wars and lost her children.
More – Questions
- The head master said, “The school will remain closed throughout this winter.”
- The caller said, “I am looking for someone who could help me out.”
- The driver said, “I don’t mind driving to the airport.”
- The child said, “I will not disobey anyone.”
- Sam said, “My country is poor but I am happy being here.”
- The dog thought, “All men are good although some of them are bad.”
- The prince said, “I am not so much experienced but I am not corrupt.”
- Trisha said, “I have always been ignorant about grammar.”
- The gardener said, “this is not the right time to enter my garden.”
- The idiot said, “I will bury all my money in the casket.”
- The head master informed that the school would remain closed throughout that winter.
- The caller said that he was looking for someone who could help him out.
- The driver said that he didn’t mind driving to the airport.
- The child said that he would not disobey anyone.
- Sam said that his country was poor but that he was happy being there.
- The dog thought that all men were good although some of them were bad.
- The prince said that he was not so much experienced but that he was not corrupt.
- Trisha said that she had always been ignorant about grammar.
- The gardener said that it was not the right time to enter his garden.
- The idiot said that she would bury all her money in the casket.
- The Minister said, “I had been selling vegetables before the nation elected me as its Prime Minister.”
- The celebrity said, “you cannot become a celebrity unless you work hard.”
- The tutor said, “I have been teaching since 2010. I will teach for another twenty years.”
- My father said, “our family will be a heaven if you stopped being on your mobile phone.”
- The new teacher said, “I hope you will remain attentive to the class.”
- The Minister said that he had been selling vegetables before the nation elected him as its Prime Minister.
- The celebrity said that one cannot become a celebrity unless he works hard.
- The tutor said that she had been teaching since 2010. She further assured that she would teach for another twenty years.
- My father said that our family would be a heaven if I stopped being on my mobile phone.
- The new teacher said that she hoped the students would remain attentive to the class.
Type 1.2 “told”
|Martin||told||Rohit||that||he was feeling
proud of him.
- Martin said, “Rohit, I am feeling proud of you.”
- The head teacher said, “children, our school is the number 1.”
- Maggie said, “Mom, I will cook my food myself.”
- The frog said, “Bird, I have been listening to your songs.”
- Mother said, “Mary, you have slept enough.”
- They said, “Sam, Peter is better than all the other leaders.”
- “Friends, the nightingale died of over-strain and fear,” said the frog.
- “I will die for anyone whom I love,” said the leader.
- “I have been ruling this nation since my father died in a war,” said the young king. “I want your welfare, not mine.”
- “NOKIA fooled me by selling a phone with hundred and one faults,” said the professor.
More Questions for Practice
|1||They said, “Children of Noibu, this is your grandfather’s house.”||They told the children of Noibu ____ grandfather’s house.|
|2||The science teacher said, “children, it takes many years to travel to the Sun.”||The science teacher _____ years to travel to the Sun.|
|3||The gardener said, “I will not water these plants any more.”||The gardener told that ____ plants any more.|
|4||The headmaster said, “Students, whoever has done this will be expelled.”||The headmaster told the students ____ expelled.|
|5||The jeweler said, “Madam, this one is designed by a French designer.”||The jeweler ____ French designer.|
|6||The magician said, “ladies and gentlemen, here is my last trick for this day.”||The magician told the ____ day.|
|7||“Son, we never knew that flying to Milan was such easy,” said the fisherman and his wife.||The fisherman and his wife told ____ such easy.|
You have now learnt the basic level of converting Direct to Indirect. Below you can learn the most important rules. If you know the rules already, you can skip to the 3rd page and learn how to convert questions into indirect forms. However, we advise you to learn the rules to avoid confusion.
Next – Rules & Tips
Generally all the present tenses turn to past and past turn to past participle. But a universal truth remains the same.
- “Teacher said, “The earth moves around the Sun.”
The teacher said that the earth moves around the Sun.
If the sentence is a simple statement, use “told, said, commented, claimed, etc” and “that” as the linking word.
- Teacher said, “I knew who did it.”
The teacher said that she knew who had done that.
If the sentence is a question that begins with “what, which, when, where, why, who, whose, whom and how,” use “asked, demanded, inquired,” with the same “wh” form as the linking word.
- The teacher said, “What is the new story?”
The teacher asked them what the new story was.
If the sentence is a question starting with “is, am, are, was, were, will, shall, can, could, may, might, should, would, have, has, had, do, does and did,” use “asked, demanded and inquired,” with “if/whether” as the linking words.
- The teacher said, “Can anyone answer this question?”
The teacher asked if anyone could answer that question.
If the sentence is an order, use “ordered/asked + to or not to:
- The teacher said, “Do not listen to music while I teach.”
The teacher ordered them not to listen to music while she taught.
If the sentence is a request, use “requested/pleaded + to or not to.
- The child said, “Dad, please give me my school fee.”
The child requested his dad to give him his school fee.
If the sentence is an exclamation, use, “exclaimed with shock, excitement, amazement, happiness, etc., + and said that …
- “The boatman said, “Oh, I cannot believe that it is Lord Ullin’s daughter!”
The boatman exclaimed with shock and said that he could not believe that it was Lord Ullin’s daughter.
A List of Reporting Words
Adverbs that Change
|Tomorrow||The next day /
The following day
|Yesterday||The previous day /
The day before
|The day before
|Two days before|
|The day after
|In two days’ time|
Verb forms that Change
|Do / Does||Did||Had|
Next – Type 2 – Questions/Interrogatives
When you covert a question sentence (interrogative) into indirect speech, you have to keep in mind that there are 2 kinds of interrogative sentences – Wh Questions and BeHMD Questions.
1. Wh Family – What, when, where, which, why, who, whom, whose, how
2. BeHMD Family
- Be – Is, am, are, was, were, will, shall
- H – Have, Has, had
- M – Can, could, may, might, would, should, must, need, ought to, dare
- D – Do, Does, Did
3. Wh – Family
- Doctor said, “Stella, why are you upset today?”
- Doctor asked Stella why she was upset that day.
- Max said, “How do you feel now, Fred?”
Max asked Fred how he felt.
- Max said, “Which car is yours, Fred?”
Max asked Fred which car was his.
- Max said, “Whom do you want to meet, Fred?”
Max asked Fred whom he wanted to meet.
- Max said, “Who broke the glass, Fred?”
Max asked Fred who had broken the glass.
- Max said, “Why is your dad sad, Fred?”
Max asked Fred why his dad was sad.
- The postman said, “How can I help you, Ali?
The postman asked Ali how he could help him.
- The narrator said, “Sister, how do the two boys earn for their sister?”
The narrator asked the sister how the two boys earned for their sister.
- “What is the cost of this shirt?” asked Ram.
Ram asked what the cost of the shirt was.
- The monster said, “Sam, why did you forget your own name?”
- The lady said, “boy, how can I help you?”
- The grandfather said, “Amelia, what is the day today?”
- The man said, “where have you learnt French from, lady?”
- “Child, which is the easiest way to Kiddingtown?” said the wise man.
- “Mom, why don’t hens and cocks fly as high as eagles do?” asked the child.
- Ms Meelie said, “How do you want the cake served, Jack?”
- The painter said, “Sir, where do you want me hang this photo?”
- The master said to the cook, “Why have you left the kitchen without informing me?”
- The doctor said, “How long have you been suffering?”
- “How will you look after yourself, Marie?” mother asked.
|1||Sara said, “Abraham, when will God visit us again?”||Sara asked Abraham ____ again.|
|2||The prince said, “Nivia, why do you feel so proud of your beauty?”|
|3||The lion said, “you monkeys, when will you become sensible?”|
|4||The bearer said, “what would you like to have with soup?”|
2.2 – BeHMD Questions – IF/Whether
- Do not use ‘that’
- Use “if” or “whether” to link.
- Use the pronoun (I, we, you, they, he, she, it) immediately after the linking if.
|Ram||asked||Ravan||if||he||could do||him||a favor.|
- Peter said, “Ram, Is your sister a doctor?”
Peter asked Ram if his sister was a doctor.
- The gentleman said, “Children, are you the sons of Abraham?”
The gentleman asked the children if they were the sons of Abraham.
- Adam said, “Eve, have you heard someone gibber?”
Adam asked Eve if she had heard someone gibber.
- Mona said, “Max Payne, would you help me come out of this hell?”
Mona asked Max Payne if he would help her come out of that hell.
- Ram said, “Is your memory strong, Sita?”
- Sam said, “Children, can I join your game?”
- Peter said, “Marie, could you ask your father to stop smoking?”
- The Principal said, “Teachers, should we buy another car for this purpose?
- Sam asked Peter, “must I shift to Bengaluru?”
- Sam asked Peter, “should I turn the fan off?”
- Sam asked Peter, “would you mind opening the door a little more?”
- Sam asked Peter, “Shall I settle down in Mysore?”
- Sam asked Peter, “Have the thieves left anything for our dinner?”
- Sam asked Peter, “Has Emilie agreed to learn Spanish?”
- Sam asked Peter, “Does my name sound weird?”
- Sam asked Peter, “Does Emilie visit you on weekends?”
- Sam asked Peter, “Did they mix alcohol in your Cola?”
- Father said, “Children, should we admit a few more friends into our group?”
- Sen said, “Children, can you come with me to Niora?”
Mr. Sen asked the children ____ to Niora.
- “Will you forgive me, Raju,” asked Ravi, “for all that I have done?”
Ravi asked Raju ____ done.
Questions | IF/Whether (Negative)
- “Would I have not come for your help, Max?” said Martin.
Martin asked Max ____ help.
- “Shall they not arrange the party, Sam?” said Mohan.
- “Could you not have stopped the enemies at the gate, soldiers?” asked the king.
- “Sam, are you going to marry her?” asked Khan.
Khan asked Sam if he was going to marry her.
Type 3 – Commands and Requests/Imperatives (to/no to)
- The duck said, “Kindly spare me, fox.”
The duck requested the fox to spare her.
- The ant said, “Mr. Grasshopper, please give me some rice.”
- The ant requested Mr. Grasshopper to give him some rice.
- “Love your enemy and pray for those who hate you,” said Jesus.
- Jesus advised them to love their enemies and pray for those who hated them.
Questions for Practice
- Mother said, “Wake up, children.”
Mother ___ to ___.
- Raju said, “Come with me, Sara.”
Raju ____ Sara _____.
- “Swim quickly,” shouted my friends. “There is a shark after you.”
My friends shouted at me ____ because _____.
- “Madam, kindly park the car between pillar numbers 33 and 34,” said the guard.
The guard requested ____ park the car between pillar numbers 33 and 34.
- “Son, do not touch the phone,” said the mother.
The mother told ____ the phone.
- “Please do not shout after 10 pm,” said the landlord.
The landlord requested the tenants ____ after 10 pm.
Look at these Examples
- Sita said, “Sam, Anil is my friend.”
Sita told Sam that Anil was her friend.
- Sita said, “Sam, I am your friend as well.”
Sita told Sam that she was his friend as well.
- Sita said, “Sam, we are getting late.”
Sita told Sam that they were getting late.
- Sita said, “Sam, this is a good idea.”
Sita told Sam that that was a good idea.
- Sita said, “Sam, we will meet Anil at McDonalds.”
Sita told Sam that they would meet Anil at McDonalds.
Today’s sentences for Sentence Labeling
- It is characterized by excessive deposition of extracellular matrix.
- Therefore, there is significant heterogeneity in organ progression and prognosis.
- Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is a heterogeneous group of parenchymal lung disorders that share common radiologic, pathologic, and clinical manifestations.
- It is characterized by lung parenchyma damage, accompanied by inflammation and fibrosis, and fibrosis is often incurable.
- The fibrosing forms of ILD are often incurable, and are associated with significant morbidity and mortality.
- SSc is often accompanied by ILD.
- The incidence of SSc-ILD in the relevant literature ranges from 45% to 90%.
- A recent European League Against Rheumatism Scleroderma Trials and Research analysis revealed in a cohort of 3,656 SSc patients that ILD was present in 53% of cases with diffuse cutaneous SSc and in 35% of cases with limited cutaneous SSc.
Likely labels for the sentences above:
- Features of X – This sentence often presents a list of features the subject matter has.
- Subject matter – Subject matter explain what this paragraph is all about.
- Research report – The report based on a research study.
- Incidence of X in Y – The popularity of the subject matter in areas like literature, education, research, etc.
- Association – Explains the other areas to which the subject matter is connected / linked / associated.
Today’s Paragraphs for Labeling
Generalized seizures are divided into absence seizures and tonic-clonic seizures. Absence seizures were previously called petit mal seizures and usually have onset in childhood, but they can persist into adulthood. Absence seizures present with staring spells lasting several seconds, sometimes in conjunction with eyelid fluttering or head nodding. These seizures can be difficult to distinguish from complex partial seizures that may also result in staring. Usually, absence seizures are briefer and permit quicker recovery. Generalized tonic-clonic seizures were previously called grand mal seizures; these seizures start with sudden loss of consciousness and tonic activity (stiffening) followed by clonic activity (rhythmic jerking) of the limbs. The patient’s eyes will roll up at the beginning of the seizure and the patient will typically emit a cry, not because of pain, but because of contraction of the respiratory muscles against a closed throat. Generalized tonicclonic seizures usually last one to three minutes.
Seizures that begin focally can spread to the entire brain, in which case a tonic-clonic seizure ensues. It is important, however, to distinguish those that are true grand mal, generalized from the start, from those that start focally and secondarily generalize.
Secondarily generalized seizures arise from a part of the brain that is focally abnormal. Drugs used to treat primary and secondary generalized tonic-clonic seizures are different: patients with secondarily generalized tonic-clonic seizures may be candidates for curative epilepsy surgery, whereas primarily generalized tonicclonic seizures are not surgical candidates, because there is no seizure origin site (focus) to remove.
Atonic seizures are epileptic drop attacks. Atonic seizures typically occur in children or adults with widespread brain injuries. People with atonic seizures suddenly become limp and may fall to the ground and football helmets are sometimes required to protect against serious injuries. A myoclonic seizure is a brief un-sustained jerk or series of jerks, less organized than the rhythmic jerks seen during a generalized tonic-clonic seizure. Other specialized seizure types are occasionally encountered. Tonic seizures involve stiffening of muscles as the primary seizure manifestation: arms or legs may extend forward or up into the air; consciousness may or may not be lost. By definition, the clonic (jerking) phase is absent. Classification can be difficult, because stiffening is a feature of many complex partial seizures.
Tonic seizures, however, are much less common than complex partial or tonic-clonic seizures. Patients can have more than one seizure type. One seizure type may progress into another as the electrical activity spreads throughout the brain. A typical progression is from a simple partial seizure, to a complex partial seizure (when the patient becomes confused), to a secondarily generalized tonic-clonic seizure (when the electrical activity has spread throughout the entire brain). The brain has control mechanisms to keep seizures localized. Antiepileptic medications enhance the ability of the brain to limit the spread of a seizure.
- Pick any OET Listening Audios / Listen to the short audios below.
- Get your headphone, pen, notebook and the device to play back the audio.
- Start playing back and listen carefully.
- As you listen to the audio, start writing down the conversations in the notebook.
- You will have to pause, stop, rewind and forward the playback head many times.
- Complete writing the transcription.
NB: When you play back large audio files, listen continuously till the end and write the transcription, leaving blank spaces whenever you fail to understand a particular word. After reaching the end of the audio, replay and fill the blanks.
Listen to the short audios below and, applying the paragraph labeling you have mastered by now, write the short labels of the audio in a word or in a few words.
Audio Labeling 1
Audio Labeling 2
That’s really an interesting question! When I first thought seriously about immigration, IELTS came to my mind because among my friends most of them were familiar with IELTS and OET is still not very popular in my neighborhood. Besides, we did not have an OET center nearby. Honestly speaking, I made two months’ rigorous preparation for IELTS and then was ready to book my exam when, you know, all were talking only about OET! I made my own kind of investigation and began to strangely feel that OET must be my choice because the questions are all, medical.
You are a community nurse working in the Department of Public Health and Awareness camp, in Melbourne, Australia.
Ebola is an infectious, fatal disease marked by fever and severe internal bleeding spread through contact with infected body fluids by a filovirus (Ebola virus) whose normal host species is unknown. The spread of Ebola and its fatality have threatened Australian cities and the government has started awareness campaigns to for the safety of local people.
Any person having been exposed to a suspect, probably or confirmed case of Ebola in at least one of the following ways:
- Has slept in the same household with a case
- Has had direct physical contact with the case (alive or dead) during the illness
- Has had direct physical contact with the (dead) case at the funeral
- Has touched his/her body or body fluids during the illness
- Has touched his/her clothes or linens
- Has been breastfed by the patient (baby)
- Provided that this exposure has taken place less than 21 days before the identification as a contact by surveillance teams.
Contact of dead or sick animals:
Any person having been exposed to a sick or dead animal in at least one of the following ways:
- Has had direct physical contact with the animal
- Has had direct contact with the animal’s blood or body fluids
- Has eaten raw bush-meat
Ebola – Laboratory contacts:
- Any person having been exposed to biological material in a laboratory in at least one of the following ways:
- Has had direct contact with specimens collected from suspected Ebola patients
- Has had direct contact with specimens collected from suspected Ebola
- Provided that this exposure has taken place less than 21 days before the identification as a contact by surveillance teams
Using the information given above, write a letter to Mr. Jerome Ray, Social Worker, Peaceway Suburban Health Clinic, to conduct an awareness class for a group of Melbourne residents many of whom work with the airline industry
In your answer:
- Expand the relevant notes into complete sentences
- Do not use note form
- Use letter format
The body of the letter should be approximately 180–200 words.
You need to develop skills to convert broken words into meaningful sentences:
Now let’s expand simple notes to complete sentences. It is like adding flesh, blood and skin to a skeleton, that is, you have to add many words to the given 2 or three words.
- Lives alone → Mr Peter lives alone.
- Can walk → He can walk.
- Needs assistance → However, he needs assistance with walking.
- Dressing done → His dressing is done.
- No Children → Mr Peter has no children.
- Brother lives in London with family, two children → He has a brother who lives in London with two children.
- Her neighbor, Mona, visits her house once in a week → Mona, her neighbor, visits her house once in a week.
- Incontinence of bladder & bowel at times → She also suffers from incontinence of bladder and bowel at times.
- Husband works in factory: setting up small import business → Her husband works in a factory and is setting up a small import business simultaneously.
- Said English at night school → She said that she learns English at a night school.
- Children (boy 13, boy 11, girl 7) all at school; working hard to adjust → With three school-going children between 7 and 13, she finds it hard to adjust.
- Strong family commitment to school/work/study/business → (In spite of all this) She maintains very strong family commitment with school, work, study and business.
- After operation, hard to manage new baby → After this operation, she finds it hard to manage the new baby.
- No other family in Australia → It is worth considering that he has no other family in Australia.
Study the pairs of notes and see how they are connected:
- Earns a high pension;
- Unwilling to spend on treatment
→ Although Mr Peter earns a high amount as pension, he is unwilling to spend on (his) treatment.
Exercise 1. Combine the two parts with a Relative Pronouns like who, whose, whom, for whom, for which, etc.
- I am writing to refer Mr Walker. He is presented with features suggestive of pro-static carcinoma.
- Ms Sharman is a new resident of our center. She has been suffering from severe dementia since 2011.
- Ms Sharman enjoys eating a lot of food. She has gained about 10 kg of weight over the last 5 months.
- Mr Oakes is recuperating from a myocardial infarction. He needs cardiac rehabilitation.
- Ms Sharman has had diabetes mellitus since 2000. For this she consumes a diabetic.
Exercise 2. Combine the two parts with Conjunctions like and, but, because, although, if, etc.
- His urinalysis was normal. However, PSA was recommended along with counselling for smoking cessation and lifestyle changes.
- She was non-compliant with her medications. She was also found to be agitated and aggressive.
- He is a chain smoker and social drinker. He has also a positive family history of pro-static cancer.
Exercise 1 – Answers
- I am writing to refer Mr Walker who is presented with features suggestive of pro-static carcinoma.
- Ms Sharman is a new resident of our center who has been suffering from severe dementia since 2011.
- Ms Sharman enjoys eating a lot of food due to which she has gained about 10 kg of weight over the last 5 months.
- Mr Oakes is recuperating from a myocardial infarction for which he needs cardiac rehabilitation.
- Ms Sharman has had diabetes mellitus since 2000 for which she consumes a diabetic diet.
Exercise 2 – Answers
- Although his urinalysis was normal, PSA was recommended along with counselling for smoking cessation and lifestyle changes.
- She was not only non-compliant with her medications, but also agitated and aggressive.
- Apart from being a chain smoker and social drinker, he has also a positive family history of pro-static cancer.
A recent study, reported on by Medical News Today, found that the faster a person walks, the longer they may live, with older adults benefitting the most from a brisk pace. Medical professionals have long used gait speed as a marker of health and fitness among older adults, but the new research asks a slightly different question: Does a slow gait speed in midlife indicate and predict accelerated aging?
Write a simple story with the following starting:
Starting – “When Nr Laksmi reached the railway station, it was past 9.00 pm. Her train would take 10 more minutes to depart the platform. Running into the coach and finding her seat number 12, she began to suspect if she would reach Ms Alfia’s residence in time.”