Degrees of Adverbs:
We have already learnt that adverbs are words that say how, when, where and action is done. “She has recuperated” doesn’t give us all the information but “She has recuperated well” gives us an additional information – ‘how much she has recuperated.’
- He presented (No adverb)
- He presented alone (Alone – How did he present?)
- He presented alone on Monday (Alone + on Monday – How and when)
- He often presented alone on Mondays (Often indicates how often)
Adverbs and Adjectives have degrees. Look at the following examples:
- After three days her pain was greater than before.
- Such patients recuperate slower than the others.
Look at the three degrees of Adverbs:
Adverbs in Sentences
- We must not reach there later than 7 o’clock.
- You speak more loudly than a loudspeaker.
- Sirius shines more brightly than all the other stars.
It is not correct to use –er and more together, or –est and most together.
- Incorrect: The tree is more taller than the giraffe.
Correct:The tree is taller than the giraffe.
- Incorrect: This turkey is the most oldest in the farm.
Correct: This turkey is the oldest in the farm.
The superlative form is used to compare three or more things.
- He arrived the earliest, so he had to wait for the others.
- Why do you have to speak the most loudly of all at the meeting?
- Of all the girls, your sister sang the most sweetly.
Some adverbs form the comparative and the superlative irregularly.
- Badly – worse (than) – (the) worst
- Far – farther – farthest
- Far – further – furthest
- Little – less – least
- Much/many – more – most
- Well – better – best
- Of the two teddy bears, which do you like better?
- This has to be the farthest I have ever walked in my life.
Degrees of Adjectives
|Bad||Worse (than)||(the) Worst|
Look at the examples:
- She had low fever on admission.
- She experienced fever lower than the previous day.
- On Monday her fever was marked as the lowest of al the days.
- She is the most fastest player.
- We sell the bestest mangoes.
- They are smartest than us.
Degrees : more (than), (the) most
- Intelligent – more intelligent – most intelligent
- Beautiful – more beautiful – most beautiful
- Adamant – more adamant – most adamant
- Popular – more popular – most popular
- Expensive – more expensive – most expensive
Superlative – Fill in the blanks with the superlative forms. (the + -est, most)
- She is ______ girl in the school. (tall)
- I have bought the _______ car in the city. (expensive)
- Have you heard about _____ dog in the world? (rich)
- Harry is ______ student in my class. (intelligent)
- _____ speed of this car is 360 mph. (high)
- That was _____ suggestion. (good)
- 2011 was ______ year in my life. (bad)
- _____ news was that the police could not arrest the man. (sad)
- Can I give you _____ question anyone ever asked anyone? (difficult)
- This is _____ trench in the Pacific Ocean. (deep)
Fill in the blanks with the correct degree of comparison
- Sarita is the ___ girl in the class. (Bold)
- This pit is ______ than that. (Deep)
- King Vikramaditya was ______ than many other kings. (Noble)
- No other boy in the class is ___ than Raghu. (naughty)
- Mitali is the ___ girl in the session. (shy)
- This is the ___ color available. (bright)
- I like the ___ tile in this shop. (red)
- After nightfall, we could not move ___. (far)
- Last year we had a very ___ (bad) crop but this year we are going to have the __ (bad) crop in the last ten years due to drought.
- Our school has ___ buses ___ our neighboring school. (more)
- My friends say that their families have suffered ___ in the war. (more)
Convert to Superlative Degree
- Devu and Company is richer than all the other rubber companies in this city.
- My sister Rani is more talkative than all my sisters and cousins.
- Miss Devaki Narain is more loved and respected than all my teachers.
- Teakwood is stronger and expensive than all other trees in this forest.
- Rajinikant is more loved than all other stars in India.
- Her dressing is more attractive than that of her friends.
- Jeshua John is quicker than all the other 12 children in the colony.
- All my friends are poorer than I am.
- Nine out of ten girls in my class are more hardworking than Shiela.
- No other species on the earth is as cruel and senseless as man.
Choose the Correct adjectives from those given in brackets
- My dog is (greedy/greedier) than my neighbors.
- Jane, my sister, is the (cuter/cutest) of all the girls in the village.
- Between accident and death, death is (more painful/most painful).
- Sunday night was the (darker/darkest) of all nights.
Today’s sentences for Sentence Labeling
- It is characterized by excessive deposition of extracellular matrix.
- Therefore, there is significant heterogeneity in organ progression and prognosis.
- Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is a heterogeneous group of parenchymal lung disorders that share common radiologic, pathologic, and clinical manifestations.
- It is characterized by lung parenchyma damage, accompanied by inflammation and fibrosis, and fibrosis is often incurable.
- The fibrosing forms of ILD are often incurable, and are associated with significant morbidity and mortality.
- SSc is often accompanied by ILD.
- The incidence of SSc-ILD in the relevant literature ranges from 45% to 90%.
- A recent European League Against Rheumatism Scleroderma Trials and Research analysis revealed in a cohort of 3,656 SSc patients that ILD was present in 53% of cases with diffuse cutaneous SSc and in 35% of cases with limited cutaneous SSc.
Likely labels for the sentences above:
- Features of X – This sentence often presents a list of features the subject matter has.
- Subject matter – Subject matter explain what this paragraph is all about.
- Research report – The report based on a research study.
- Incidence of X in Y – The popularity of the subject matter in areas like literature, education, research, etc.
- Association – Explains the other areas to which the subject matter is connected / linked / associated.
Today’s Paragraphs for Labeling
Generalized seizures are divided into absence seizures and tonic-clonic seizures. Absence seizures were previously called petit mal seizures and usually have onset in childhood, but they can persist into adulthood. Absence seizures present with staring spells lasting several seconds, sometimes in conjunction with eyelid fluttering or head nodding. These seizures can be difficult to distinguish from complex partial seizures that may also result in staring. Usually, absence seizures are briefer and permit quicker recovery. Generalized tonic-clonic seizures were previously called grand mal seizures; these seizures start with sudden loss of consciousness and tonic activity (stiffening) followed by clonic activity (rhythmic jerking) of the limbs. The patient’s eyes will roll up at the beginning of the seizure and the patient will typically emit a cry, not because of pain, but because of contraction of the respiratory muscles against a closed throat. Generalized tonicclonic seizures usually last one to three minutes.
Seizures that begin focally can spread to the entire brain, in which case a tonic-clonic seizure ensues. It is important, however, to distinguish those that are true grand mal, generalized from the start, from those that start focally and secondarily generalize.
Secondarily generalized seizures arise from a part of the brain that is focally abnormal. Drugs used to treat primary and secondary generalized tonic-clonic seizures are different: patients with secondarily generalized tonic-clonic seizures may be candidates for curative epilepsy surgery, whereas primarily generalized tonicclonic seizures are not surgical candidates, because there is no seizure origin site (focus) to remove.
Atonic seizures are epileptic drop attacks. Atonic seizures typically occur in children or adults with widespread brain injuries. People with atonic seizures suddenly become limp and may fall to the ground and football helmets are sometimes required to protect against serious injuries. A myoclonic seizure is a brief un-sustained jerk or series of jerks, less organized than the rhythmic jerks seen during a generalized tonic-clonic seizure. Other specialized seizure types are occasionally encountered. Tonic seizures involve stiffening of muscles as the primary seizure manifestation: arms or legs may extend forward or up into the air; consciousness may or may not be lost. By definition, the clonic (jerking) phase is absent. Classification can be difficult, because stiffening is a feature of many complex partial seizures.
Tonic seizures, however, are much less common than complex partial or tonic-clonic seizures. Patients can have more than one seizure type. One seizure type may progress into another as the electrical activity spreads throughout the brain. A typical progression is from a simple partial seizure, to a complex partial seizure (when the patient becomes confused), to a secondarily generalized tonic-clonic seizure (when the electrical activity has spread throughout the entire brain). The brain has control mechanisms to keep seizures localized. Antiepileptic medications enhance the ability of the brain to limit the spread of a seizure.
- Pick any OET Listening Audios / Listen to the short audios below.
- Get your headphone, pen, notebook and the device to play back the audio.
- Start playing back and listen carefully.
- As you listen to the audio, start writing down the conversations in the notebook.
- You will have to pause, stop, rewind and forward the playback head many times.
- Complete writing the transcription.
NB: When you play back large audio files, listen continuously till the end and write the transcription, leaving blank spaces whenever you fail to understand a particular word. After reaching the end of the audio, replay and fill the blanks.
Listen to the short audios below and, applying the paragraph labeling you have mastered by now, write the short labels of the audio in a word or in a few words.
Audio Labeling 1
Audio Labeling 2
That’s really an interesting question! When I first thought seriously about immigration, IELTS came to my mind because among my friends most of them were familiar with IELTS and OET is still not very popular in my neighborhood. Besides, we did not have an OET center nearby. Honestly speaking, I made two months’ rigorous preparation for IELTS and then was ready to book my exam when, you know, all were talking only about OET! I made my own kind of investigation and began to strangely feel that OET must be my choice because the questions are all, medical.
Mrs Pamela Viduka is a 72 year old patient in your care. She is now ready for discharge. She has just undergone a mitral-valve replacement.
- Name: Mrs Pamela Viduka
- Age: 72 years
- Admitted: 18/11/2008
- Diagnosis: Valvular heart disease (Mitral valve prolapse)
- Reason for admission: Fainting, light-headedness, chest pain
Lives with daughter, no longer drives, Widow, enjoys reading/ doing crosswords, chatty, friendly, smoker for 55 years.
- Chronic bronchitis
- Hypertension (150/100)
- Chest infections since retirement 12 years ago
- Valve replacement
- Antibiotics/anti coagulant therapy
- Prescribed Warfarin BID
- Patient put on low salt diet
- Wear contact lenses
- Showering /dressing with help of nurses
- Slowly recovering from analgesics
- Able to walk/ stand-short periods of time
- Recovered from analgesia
- Showering and dressing with help of nurses
- Pt educated about causes/ preventions of infections
- Pt advised to quit smoking/ given tips incl using patches
- Pt was seen by dietician re low salt diet
- Able to walk for longer periods of times with walking stick
- Pt recovery well
- Can now shower/ dress independently
- Still using walking stick/ frame
- Pt advised of discharge on 24/11/08
- Vital signs unremarkable
- Pt told of discharge plan
- Needs to rest
- Requires home help- to be visited by district nurse
- Patient to monitor medication usage
- Regular follow-up examinations
- INR- to be checked on regular basis
- Avoid invasive surgical or diagnostic procedures until prophylactic antibiotics are given
- Auscultatory assessment of heart
- Wafarin (anti coagulation therapy)
- Salpetrol 3 puff daily
- Mirax 25 mg daily
Using the information in the case note, write a letter of referral to Maxine Mullins (district nurse, 45 Finders Lane, Melbourne, 300), who will provide follow up care in this case.
In your answer:
- Expand the relevant notes into complete sentences
- Do not use note form
- Use letter format
The body of the letter should be approximately 180–200 words.
You need to develop skills to convert broken words into meaningful sentences:
Now let’s expand simple notes to complete sentences. It is like adding flesh, blood and skin to a skeleton, that is, you have to add many words to the given 2 or three words.
- Lives alone → Mr Peter lives alone.
- Can walk → He can walk.
- Needs assistance → However, he needs assistance with walking.
- Dressing done → His dressing is done.
- No Children → Mr Peter has no children.
- Brother lives in London with family, two children → He has a brother who lives in London with two children.
- Her neighbor, Mona, visits her house once in a week → Mona, her neighbor, visits her house once in a week.
- Incontinence of bladder & bowel at times → She also suffers from incontinence of bladder and bowel at times.
- Husband works in factory: setting up small import business → Her husband works in a factory and is setting up a small import business simultaneously.
- Said English at night school → She said that she learns English at a night school.
- Children (boy 13, boy 11, girl 7) all at school; working hard to adjust → With three school-going children between 7 and 13, she finds it hard to adjust.
- Strong family commitment to school/work/study/business → (In spite of all this) She maintains very strong family commitment with school, work, study and business.
- After operation, hard to manage new baby → After this operation, she finds it hard to manage the new baby.
- No other family in Australia → It is worth considering that he has no other family in Australia.
Study the pairs of notes and see how they are connected:
- Earns a high pension;
- Unwilling to spend on treatment
→ Although Mr Peter earns a high amount as pension, he is unwilling to spend on (his) treatment.
Exercise 1. Combine the two parts with a Relative Pronouns like who, whose, whom, for whom, for which, etc.
- I am writing to refer Mr Walker. He is presented with features suggestive of pro-static carcinoma.
- Ms Sharman is a new resident of our center. She has been suffering from severe dementia since 2011.
- Ms Sharman enjoys eating a lot of food. She has gained about 10 kg of weight over the last 5 months.
- Mr Oakes is recuperating from a myocardial infarction. He needs cardiac rehabilitation.
- Ms Sharman has had diabetes mellitus since 2000. For this she consumes a diabetic.
Exercise 2. Combine the two parts with Conjunctions like and, but, because, although, if, etc.
- His urinalysis was normal. However, PSA was recommended along with counselling for smoking cessation and lifestyle changes.
- She was non-compliant with her medications. She was also found to be agitated and aggressive.
- He is a chain smoker and social drinker. He has also a positive family history of pro-static cancer.
Exercise 1 – Answers
- I am writing to refer Mr Walker who is presented with features suggestive of pro-static carcinoma.
- Ms Sharman is a new resident of our center who has been suffering from severe dementia since 2011.
- Ms Sharman enjoys eating a lot of food due to which she has gained about 10 kg of weight over the last 5 months.
- Mr Oakes is recuperating from a myocardial infarction for which he needs cardiac rehabilitation.
- Ms Sharman has had diabetes mellitus since 2000 for which she consumes a diabetic diet.
Exercise 2 – Answers
- Although his urinalysis was normal, PSA was recommended along with counselling for smoking cessation and lifestyle changes.
- She was not only non-compliant with her medications, but also agitated and aggressive.
- Apart from being a chain smoker and social drinker, he has also a positive family history of pro-static cancer.
Commence is probably one of the most mistaken word in OET.
The right expressions are:
- She commenced on Aspirin
- She has commenced on Aspirin
- Her treatment commenced with intravenous therapy
- Her treatment has commenced with intravenous fluids…
The wrong expressions are:
- She was commenced on oxygen therapy.
- She has been commenced on physiotherapy.
- He has been commenced on Aspirin and Warfarin as required.
Commence or commenced means “start / started”. To understand that, take this Quiz!
A recent study, reported on by Medical News Today, found that the faster a person walks, the longer they may live, with older adults benefitting the most from a brisk pace. Medical professionals have long used gait speed as a marker of health and fitness among older adults, but the new research asks a slightly different question: Does a slow gait speed in midlife indicate and predict accelerated aging?
Write a simple story with the following starting:
Starting – “When Nr Laksmi reached the railway station, it was past 9.00 pm. Her train would take 10 more minutes to depart the platform. Running into the coach and finding her seat number 12, she began to suspect if she would reach Ms Alfia’s residence in time.”