What is nominalization?
Nominalization is converting a word into its noun form. In OET, we often have to write certain words in their noun forms. Let’s look at this example:
- In case note: Distorted vision
- His surgeon has made a detailed study about the ___ of his vision. (distorting / distort / distortion)
In this case, the correct word is “distortion.”
In the session we will learn:
- How to change to noun form,
- How to change noun forms to other forms.
Part 1 – Forming Nouns from verbs and adjective:
Look at this table. You can see how a word changes to its noun form:
|Source Word||Noun Form|
Part 2 – Gerunds
Gerunds are also called “verbal nouns.” In short, it is changing a verb into a noun form by adding -ing to a verb:
- Going for a walk in the morning will be good.
- She has to refrain from lifting heavy weight for a month.
- Hiking can be arduous during time.
- Loitering is not permitted until the pain is completely under control.
Part 3 – Conclusion
Nominalization is very important in LRWS. To summarize this section, please proceed to the Quiz below:
Today’s sentences for Sentence Labeling
- An ear infection (sometimes called acute otitis media) is an infection of the middle ear, the air-filled space behind the eardrum that contains the tiny vibrating bones of the ear.
- Children are more likely than adults to get ear infections.
- Because ear infections often clear up on their own, treatment may begin with managing pain and monitoring the problem.
- Sometimes, antibiotics are used to clear the infection.
- Some people are prone to having multiple ear infections.
- This can cause hearing problems and other serious complications.
- An ear infection is caused by a bacterium or virus in the middle ear.
- This infection often results from another illness — cold, flu or allergy — that causes congestion and swelling of the nasal passages, throat and eustachian tubes.
- Children between the ages of 6 months and 2 years are more susceptible to ear infections because of the size and shape of their eustachian tubes and because their immune systems are still developing.
- Mild hearing loss that comes and goes is fairly common with an ear infection, but it usually gets better after the infection clears.
Likely labels for the sentences above:
- Features of X – This sentence often presents a list of features the subject matter has.
- Subject matter – Subject matter explain what this paragraph is all about.
- Research report – The report based on a research study.
- Risk factors
- Incidence of X in Y – The popularity of the subject matter in areas like literature, education, research, etc.
- Association – Explains the other areas to which the subject matter is connected / linked / associated.
A new waterproof cast lining was developed in the 1990s for both plaster and fiberglass casts. This new lining combined with a fiberglass cast means a completely waterproof cast. That makes it possible for you to bathe, shower, and swim while wearing a cast.
But the problem is that water and soap can get stuck between the cast and skin. This can lead to possible maceration of the skin under the cast. Maceration is when the skin stays moist for too long, making it appear lighter and wrinkly. It can increase your risk of infections.
Although a fiberglass cast can get wet, the typical padding underneath can’t. So, if you want a fully waterproof cast, you must discuss it with your doctor. They can determine whether a waterproof liner is appropriate for your specific situation.
- Find out today’s transcription audio from the learning folder you have received / Pick any OET Listening Audios / Listen to the short audios below.
- Get your headphone, pen, notebook and the device to play back the audio.
- Start playing back and listen carefully.
- As you listen to the audio, start writing down the conversations in the notebook.
- You will have to pause, stop, rewind and forward the playback head many times.
- Complete writing the transcription.
NB: When you play back large audio files, listen continuously till the end and write the transcription, leaving blank spaces whenever you fail to understand a particular word. After reaching the end of the audio, replay and fill the blanks.
Listen to the short audios below and, applying the paragraph labeling you have mastered by now, write the short labels of the audio in a word or in a few words.
Audio Labeling 1
Audio Labeling 2
Read the case notes and complete the writing task which follows.
Write a referral letter to admitting doctor (in-charge) of ER for further investigations and treatment.
- Mrs Laureata Croft
- Age: 37
- Occupation: School nurse at Leyola High School, Flinder’s Street, Townsville, Australia.
- Husband: Mr Simpson Croft, school teacher.
- Lives with husband, two sons and husband’s parents
- Mother lives with brother Nicholaz at Ross Island 28 miles away.
- Mother very concerned about Mrs Croft. Visits her once every week.
- Irregular heart rate, diagnosed in 2015. On medication.
- Syncope /sinkepee/, diagnosed in 2016, hospitalized for 3 days
1st visit: 14th November.
- Patient collapsed and fell unconscious for 30 minutes but recovered.
2nd visit: 2nd December
- Examination and vitals stable
- Palpitations, shortness of breath and fatigue. Possible Atrial fibrillation.
- Irregular HR
- Whole Milk,
- Ice-cream shakes,
- Fruit drinks, Doughnuts, Pancakes, Waffles, Pizzas,
- Cheeseburgers, Biscuits, muffins, Cajun Fries, Hash brown.
Reluctant to get admitted and reports that her dear ones, especially her children and mother, will worry about her condition although she is convinced that it’s an emergency and need to get admitted.
- Avoid strenuous activities/travel
- Advised to lose weight (not overweight at present)
- Normal Diabetic diet and low-fat diet.
In your answer:
- Expand the relevant notes into complete sentences
- Do not use note form
- Use letter format
- The body of the letter should be approximately 180-200 words.
You need to develop skills to convert broken words into meaningful sentences:
Now let’s expand simple notes to complete sentences. It is like adding flesh, blood and skin to a skeleton, that is, you have to add many words to the given 2 or three words.
- Lives alone → Mr Peter lives alone.
- Can walk → He can walk.
- Needs assistance → However, he needs assistance with walking.
- Dressing done → His dressing is done.
- No Children → Mr Peter has no children.
- Brother lives in London with family, two children → He has a brother who lives in London with two children.
- Her neighbor, Mona, visits her house once in a week → Mona, her neighbor, visits her house once in a week.
- Incontinence of bladder & bowel at times → She also suffers from incontinence of bladder and bowel at times.
- Husband works in factory: setting up small import business → Her husband works in a factory and is setting up a small import business simultaneously.
- Said English at night school → She said that she learns English at a night school.
- Children (boy 13, boy 11, girl 7) all at school; working hard to adjust → With three school-going children between 7 and 13, she finds it hard to adjust.
- Strong family commitment to school/work/study/business → (In spite of all this) She maintains very strong family commitment with school, work, study and business.
- After operation, hard to manage new baby → After this operation, she finds it hard to manage the new baby.
- No other family in Australia → It is worth considering that he has no other family in Australia.
Exercise 1. Combine the two parts with a Relative Pronouns like who, whose, whom, for whom, for which, etc.
- I am writing to refer Mr Walker. He is presented with features suggestive of pro-static carcinoma.
- Ms Sharman is a new resident of our center. She has been suffering from severe dementia since 2011.
- Ms Sharman enjoys eating a lot of food. She has gained about 10 kg of weight over the last 5 months.
- Mr Oakes is recuperating from a myocardial infarction. He needs cardiac rehabilitation.
- Ms Sharman has had diabetes mellitus since 2000. For this she consumes a diabetic.
I will once again explain this “commenced issue”.
The right expressions are:
- She commenced on Aspirin
- She has commenced on Aspirin
- Her treatment commenced with intravenous therapy
- Her treatment has commenced with intravenous fluids…
The wrong expressions are:
- She was commenced on oxygen therapy.
- She has been commenced on physiotherapy.
- He has been commenced on Aspirin and Warfarin as required.
Commence or commenced means “start / started”. To understand that, take this Quiz!
A recent study, reported on by Medical News Today, found that the faster a person walks, the longer they may live, with older adults benefitting the most from a brisk pace. Medical professionals have long used gait speed as a marker of health and fitness among older adults, but the new research asks a slightly different question: Does a slow gait speed in midlife indicate and predict accelerated aging?
Write a simple story with the following starting:
Starting – “When Nr Laksmi reached the railway station, it was past 9.00 pm. Her train would take 10 more minutes to depart the platform. Running into the coach and finding her seat number 12, she began to suspect if she would reach Ms Alfia’s residence in time.”