Today’s sentences for Sentence Labeling
- It is characterized by excessive deposition of extracellular matrix.
- Therefore, there is significant heterogeneity in organ progression and prognosis.
- Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is a heterogeneous group of parenchymal lung disorders that share common radiologic, pathologic, and clinical manifestations.
- It is characterized by lung parenchyma damage, accompanied by inflammation and fibrosis, and fibrosis is often incurable.
- The fibrosing forms of ILD are often incurable, and are associated with significant morbidity and mortality.
- SSc is often accompanied by ILD.
- The incidence of SSc-ILD in the relevant literature ranges from 45% to 90%.
- A recent European League Against Rheumatism Scleroderma Trials and Research analysis revealed in a cohort of 3,656 SSc patients that ILD was present in 53% of cases with diffuse cutaneous SSc and in 35% of cases with limited cutaneous SSc.
Likely labels for the sentences above:
- Features of X – This sentence often presents a list of features the subject matter has.
- Subject matter – Subject matter explain what this paragraph is all about.
- Research report – The report based on a research study.
- Incidence of X in Y – The popularity of the subject matter in areas like literature, education, research, etc.
- Association – Explains the other areas to which the subject matter is connected / linked / associated.
In order to communicate about types of seizures, epilepsy specialists have developed a classification system for seizures. This system is not based on any fundamental property of seizures, but rather on committee-generated conventions of terminology. Classification is as follows: partial seizures and generalized seizures. Partial seizures are further divided into simple partial seizures with no alteration of consciousness or memory, or complex partial seizures with alteration of consciousness or memory. Simple partial seizures can be motor seizures with twitching, abnormal sensations, abnormal visions, sounds or smells, and distortions of perception. Seizure activity can spread to the autonomic nervous system, resulting in flushing, tingling, or nausea. If the patient becomes confused or cannot remember what is happening during the seizure, then the seizure is classified as a complex partial seizure. Previously, they were called “psychomotor seizures”, “temporal lobe seizures” or “limbic seizures”. During the complex partial seizure, patients may fumble or perform automatic fragments of activity such as lip smacking, picking at their clothes, walking around aimlessly, or saying nonsense phrases over and over again; these purposeless activities are called automatisms. About 75% of people with complex partial seizures have automatisms; those who do not simply stop stare and blank out for a few seconds or minutes.
Step 1 – Divide into Sentences:
- In order to communicate about types of seizures, epilepsy specialists have developed a classification system for seizures.
- This system is not based on any fundamental property of seizures, but rather on committee-generated conventions of terminology.
- Classification is as follows: partial seizures and generalized seizures.
- Partial seizures are further divided into simple partial seizures with no alteration of consciousness or memory, or complex partial seizures with alteration of consciousness or memory.
- Simple partial seizures can be motor seizures with twitching, abnormal sensations, abnormal visions, sounds or smells, and distortions of perception.
- Seizure activity can spread to the autonomic nervous system, resulting in flushing, tingling, or nausea.
- If the patient becomes confused or cannot remember what is happening during the seizure, then the seizure is classified as a complex partial seizure.
- Previously, they were called “psychomotor seizures”, “temporal lobe seizures” or “limbic seizures”.
- During the complex partial seizure, patients may fumble or perform automatic fragments of activity such as lip smacking, picking at their clothes, walking around aimlessly, or saying nonsense phrases over and over again; these purposeless activities are called automatisms.
- About 75% of people with complex partial seizures have automatisms; those who do not simply stop stare and blank out for a few seconds or minutes.
Step 2 – Sentence Labeling
- Classification system for S.
- Based (What is the classification based on?)
- Classification of S
- Partial S
- Partial S
- S Consequences
- Old Terms
- Symptoms of CPS / Automatisms
- Distribution of Automatisms
Step 3 – Paragraph Labeling
- Classification system for S; Partial S, Consequences;
- Complex PS, Symptoms / Automatisms, Distribution.
Fascioliasis is a parasitic infection typically caused by Fasciola hepatica, which is also known as “the common liver fluke” or “the sheep liver fluke.” A related parasite, Fasciola gigantica, can also infect people. Fascioliasis is found in all 5 continents, in over 50 countries, especially where sheep or cattle are reared. People usually become infected by eating raw watercress or other water-based plants contaminated with immature parasite larvae. The immature larval flukes migrate through the intestinal wall, the abdominal cavity, and the liver tissue, into the bile ducts, where they develop into mature adult flukes, which produce eggs. Typically, the pathology is most pronounced in the bile ducts and liver. A Fasciola infection is both treatable and preventable.
The standard way to be sure a person is infected with Fasciola is by seeing the parasite – this is usually done by finding Fasciola eggs in stool (fecal) specimens examined under a microscope. More than one specimen may need to be examined to find the parasite. Sometimes eggs are found by examining duodenal contents or bile. Infected people don’t start passing eggs until they have been infected for several months; people don’t pass eggs during the acute phase of the infection. Therefore, early on, the infection has to be diagnosed in other ways than by examining stool. Even during the chronic phase of infection, it can be difficult to find eggs in stool specimens from people who have light infections.
- Find out today’s transcription audio from the learning folder you have received / Pick any OET Listening Audios / Listen to the short audios below.
- Get your headphone, pen, notebook and the device to play back the audio.
- Start playing back and listen carefully.
- As you listen to the audio, start writing down the conversations in the notebook.
- You will have to pause, stop, rewind and forward the playback head many times.
- Complete writing the transcription.
NB: When you play back large audio files, listen continuously till the end and write the transcription, leaving blank spaces whenever you fail to understand a particular word. After reaching the end of the audio, replay and fill the blanks.
Listen to the short audios below and, applying the paragraph labeling you have mastered by now, write the short labels of the audio in a word or in a few words.
Audio Labeling 1
Audio Labeling 2
You are a Nurse Practitioner at the Medical Center Brisbane.
- Name: Sarah Marshall
- DOB: August 14, 1941
- Address: 45 Birdwood Road, Carina Heights QLD
- Phone: 07 86734214
- Next of kin: George Simmons (adopted son)
- Retired Professor
- Widow, one adopted son 24 year old student
- Husband died 2009
- Lives with her son in a one-storey house, son is often unavailable to care for patient due to school and work
- Oxygen readily accessible at home at via nasal cannula at 2-4L as needed.
- Height: 160cm Wt: 65kg
- Occasional alcoholic beverage drinker, consumes 1-2 bottles of beer/week
- Smoker, 10-15 sticks/day for 35 years
- No previous or surgical procedures
- Diagnosed with COPD in 2006, maintained on Ipratropium bromide inhaler, 1 puff, Budesonide / Formoterol, 2 puffs BID and Prednisone 40 mg taken as a single daily dose for acute attacks
- Diabetic since 2002, Metformin 500mg BID, Glipizide 5mg OD
- Hypertensive since 2002, Losartan 40mg OD
- 2016 Patient underwent routine colonoscopy, multiple polyps found.
- Admitted at Medical Center Brisbane on August 11, 2016 for Colon polypectomy on August 13, 2016
- Post-op complications at the recovery room, experienced respiratory distress, Arterial Blood Gas revealed
- metabolic acidosis. Transferred to ICU and moved to regular ward on
August 15, 2016
- Hooked to oxygen support at 3-5L NP as needed
- Patient uncooperative at times and requires encouragement to take medications
- Difficulty in sitting and can not walk around the room
- Pain meds given as prn: Paracetamol 1g IV and Endone 2.5mg PRN for untolerable pain
- On laxative, Senna, OD at bedtime
- Was on foley catheter now with adult diaper due to incontinence
- Stable vital signs at regular ward 02 sat at 96-97% at 2-3L.Wean if able to tolerate 1L.
- Moderate post op pain, wound with no exudates
Aug 17, 2016
- Patient hesitant to ambulate around her room. Prefers to walk with assistance.
- Unable to tolerate O2 at 1L. O2 sat at 98% at 2L. Anxious during wound dressing.
- Minimal pain at the incision site.Encouraged sitting, standing and walking inside her room.
- Poor appetite. Constipation, resolves with laxative.
August 19, 2016
- Patient walks around her room with walker. Can walk along the hospital corridors but requires increase to 3L O2 after walking. O2 sat at 98% at rest. Less uneasy during dressing change.
- Improved appetite.
August 22, 2016
- Patient can walk with a cane. Can tolerate O2 at 1L, O2 sat 98%. Minimal pain at incision site.
- Regular bowel movement. Still requires adult diapers for incontinence.
- Eager to go home.
- Discharge will be facilitated once O2 availability at home is confirmed.
August 23. 2016
- Patient is for discharge. Home medications and instructions given in the presence of her son.
- Need for transition care program explained. Continue dressing change at home.
- Advised to monitor O2 consumption. Follow up check up scheduled on August 30. 2016.
Given the patient’s current situation, you need to write a formal letter to the Nursing Director, Jane Hall of Southern Valley Community Transition Care Program , 64 Gladstone Road, Highgate Hill Qld 4101. Discuss the need of the patient’s continuity of care at home.
In your answer:
- Expand the relevant notes into complete sentences
- Do not use note form
- Use letter format
The body of the letter should be approximately 180–200 words.