Today’s sentences for Sentence Labeling
- It is characterized by excessive deposition of extracellular matrix.
- Therefore, there is significant heterogeneity in organ progression and prognosis.
- Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is a heterogeneous group of parenchymal lung disorders that share common radiologic, pathologic, and clinical manifestations.
- It is characterized by lung parenchyma damage, accompanied by inflammation and fibrosis, and fibrosis is often incurable.
- The fibrosing forms of ILD are often incurable, and are associated with significant morbidity and mortality.
- SSc is often accompanied by ILD.
- The incidence of SSc-ILD in the relevant literature ranges from 45% to 90%.
- A recent European League Against Rheumatism Scleroderma Trials and Research analysis revealed in a cohort of 3,656 SSc patients that ILD was present in 53% of cases with diffuse cutaneous SSc and in 35% of cases with limited cutaneous SSc.
Likely labels for the sentences above:
- Features of X – This sentence often presents a list of features the subject matter has.
- Subject matter – Subject matter explain what this paragraph is all about.
- Research report – The report based on a research study.
- Incidence of X in Y – The popularity of the subject matter in areas like literature, education, research, etc.
- Association – Explains the other areas to which the subject matter is connected / linked / associated.
In order to communicate about types of seizures, epilepsy specialists have developed a classification system for seizures. This system is not based on any fundamental property of seizures, but rather on committee-generated conventions of terminology. Classification is as follows: partial seizures and generalized seizures. Partial seizures are further divided into simple partial seizures with no alteration of consciousness or memory, or complex partial seizures with alteration of consciousness or memory. Simple partial seizures can be motor seizures with twitching, abnormal sensations, abnormal visions, sounds or smells, and distortions of perception. Seizure activity can spread to the autonomic nervous system, resulting in flushing, tingling, or nausea. If the patient becomes confused or cannot remember what is happening during the seizure, then the seizure is classified as a complex partial seizure. Previously, they were called “psychomotor seizures”, “temporal lobe seizures” or “limbic seizures”. During the complex partial seizure, patients may fumble or perform automatic fragments of activity such as lip smacking, picking at their clothes, walking around aimlessly, or saying nonsense phrases over and over again; these purposeless activities are called automatisms. About 75% of people with complex partial seizures have automatisms; those who do not simply stop stare and blank out for a few seconds or minutes.
Step 1 – Divide into Sentences:
- In order to communicate about types of seizures, epilepsy specialists have developed a classification system for seizures.
- This system is not based on any fundamental property of seizures, but rather on committee-generated conventions of terminology.
- Classification is as follows: partial seizures and generalized seizures.
- Partial seizures are further divided into simple partial seizures with no alteration of consciousness or memory, or complex partial seizures with alteration of consciousness or memory.
- Simple partial seizures can be motor seizures with twitching, abnormal sensations, abnormal visions, sounds or smells, and distortions of perception.
- Seizure activity can spread to the autonomic nervous system, resulting in flushing, tingling, or nausea.
- If the patient becomes confused or cannot remember what is happening during the seizure, then the seizure is classified as a complex partial seizure.
- Previously, they were called “psychomotor seizures”, “temporal lobe seizures” or “limbic seizures”.
- During the complex partial seizure, patients may fumble or perform automatic fragments of activity such as lip smacking, picking at their clothes, walking around aimlessly, or saying nonsense phrases over and over again; these purposeless activities are called automatisms.
- About 75% of people with complex partial seizures have automatisms; those who do not simply stop stare and blank out for a few seconds or minutes.
Step 2 – Sentence Labeling
- Classification system for S.
- Based (What is the classification based on?)
- Classification of S
- Partial S
- Partial S
- S Consequences
- Old Terms
- Symptoms of CPS / Automatisms
- Distribution of Automatisms
Step 3 – Paragraph Labeling
- Classification system for S; Partial S, Consequences;
- Complex PS, Symptoms / Automatisms, Distribution.
Paragraphs for Labeling
Generalized seizures are divided into absence seizures and tonic-clonic seizures. Absence seizures were previously called petit mal seizures and usually have onset in childhood, but they can persist into adulthood. Absence seizures present with staring spells lasting several seconds, sometimes in conjunction with eyelid fluttering or head nodding. These seizures can be difficult to distinguish from complex partial seizures that may also result in staring. Usually, absence seizures are briefer and permit quicker recovery. Generalized tonic-clonic seizures were previously called grand mal seizures; these seizures start with sudden loss of consciousness and tonic activity (stiffening) followed by clonic activity (rhythmic jerking) of the limbs. The patient’s eyes will roll up at the beginning of the seizure and the patient will typically emit a cry, not because of pain, but because of contraction of the respiratory muscles against a closed throat. Generalized tonicclonic seizures usually last one to three minutes.
Seizures that begin focally can spread to the entire brain, in which case a tonic-clonic seizure ensues. It is important, however, to distinguish those that are true grand mal, generalized from the start, from those that start focally and secondarily generalize. Secondarily generalized seizures arise from a part of the brain that is focally abnormal. Drugs used to treat primary and secondary generalized tonic-clonic seizures are different: patients with secondarily generalized tonic-clonic seizures may be candidates for curative epilepsy surgery, whereas primarily generalized tonicclonic seizures are not surgical candidates, because there is no seizure origin site (focus) to remove. Atonic seizures are epileptic drop attacks. Atonic seizures typically occur in children or adults with widespread brain injuries. People with atonic seizures suddenly become limp and may fall to the ground and football helmets are sometimes required to protect against serious injuries. A myoclonic seizure is a brief un-sustained jerk or series of jerks, less organized than the rhythmic jerks seen during a generalized tonic-clonic seizure. Other specialized seizure types are occasionally encountered. Tonic seizures involve stiffening of muscles as the primary seizure manifestation: arms or legs may extend forward or up into the air; consciousness may or may not be lost. By definition, the clonic (jerking) phase is absent. Classification can be difficult, because stiffening is a feature of many complex partial seizures. Tonic seizures, however, are much less common than complex partial or tonic-clonic seizures. Patients can have more than one seizure type. One seizure type may progress into another as the electrical activity spreads throughout the brain. A typical progression is from a simple partial seizure, to a complex partial seizure (when the patient becomes confused), to a secondarily generalized tonic-clonic seizure (when the electrical activity has spread throughout the entire brain). The brain has control mechanisms to keep seizures localized. Antiepileptic medications enhance the ability of the brain to limit the spread of a seizure.
- Find out today’s transcription audio from the learning folder you have received / Pick any OET Listening Audios / Listen to the short audios below.
- Get your headphone, pen, notebook and the device to play back the audio.
- Start playing back and listen carefully.
- As you listen to the audio, start writing down the conversations in the notebook.
- You will have to pause, stop, rewind and forward the playback head many times.
- Complete writing the transcription.
NB: When you play back large audio files, listen continuously till the end and write the transcription, leaving blank spaces whenever you fail to understand a particular word. After reaching the end of the audio, replay and fill the blanks.
Listen to the short audios below and, applying the paragraph labeling you have mastered by now, write the short labels of the audio in a word or in a few words.
Audio Labeling 1
Audio Labeling 2
Read the case notes below and complete the writing task which follows.
Mr Karan Rathore is a 41 years old man who has been a patient at a clinic you are working in as a head nurse.
Today’s date: 31/01/2017
- Name Mr Karan Rathore
- DOB 09/09/1976
- Address 28, Raymond Street, Romaville
- Medical History Hypothyroidism – thyroid replacement No history of trauma or weight loss Hospitalized (2010) due to appendicitis
- No POHx
- No allergies
- Immunizations are up to date
- Smoker (Cigarettes & Cigars)
Social History Works as a Systems Analyst. Arrived in Australia from India with wife in 2012 as a permanent resident. Lives in own home. Married- wife Mona, aged 31, 2 daughters (1 adopted) and 1 son.
- Subjective Headache, right-sided, no cough no dizziness, denied vomiting and nausea.
- HA accompanied with significant nasal discharge.
- Objective P 96, BP 130/70, T 101.0 f, neuro exam normal, neck supple Alert, well-nourished, well developed man
- General Assessment Infectious sinusitis
- Plan Given Augmentin (Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid)
- Subjective Complaints of severe headaches (HA), rightsided, throbbing, radiating to right eye, teeth, and jaw lasting 15 mins to < 2 hrs, persistent
- HA intermittent episodes, pt. described pain as “like someone has put red hot poker in my head”
- Pain so severe (10/10) that pt. unable to stand still, Sit down or go to bed, no effect when light/noise avoided rhinorrhoea, no nausea, no vomiting
- Objective P 105, BP 150/90, Physical & Neuro exam normal, neck tender-right side
- Assessment Cluster Headache
- Plan Given acetaminophen and non-steroidal antiinflammatory
Subjective: Pt. accompanied by wife, Mona. Previous complaints of severe headaches occurring in episodic attacks associated with rhinorrhoea and epiphora. Right eye “Droopy” and sometimes as “sunken” eyelids, first Noted by Mona 1 day ago, facial flushing before and during HA.
Objective: Right eye upper eyelid drooping, Constriction of pupil right eye in dark lighting, decreased sweating on right side of face, P 95 BP 130/85; Assessment possibility of? Horner’s syndrome.
Plan: Referral to ophthalmologist for further evaluation and management.
Using the information given in the case notes, write a referral letter to Dr John Dyer, an ophthalmologist at West Suburban Eye Care Centre, 396 Remington Boulevard, Suite 340, Romaville requesting him to look into this case.
In your answer:
- Expand the relevant notes into complete sentences.
- Do not use note form
- Use letter format
- The body of the letter should be approximately 180–200 words.