Paragraph Labeling Question 1
DMT (N,N-Dimethyltryptamine) is a hallucinogenic tryptamine drug that occurs naturally in many plants and animals. It is also referred to as the “spirit molecule” due to the intense psychedelic experience. Although lesser known than other psychedelics such as LSD or magic mushrooms, DMT produces a brief but intense visual and auditory hallucinogenic experience.
Paragraph Labeling Question 2
DMT is a Schedule I controlled substance in the United States; this means that it is illegal to manufacture, buy, possess, or distribute the drug. The substance has a high potential for abuse, no recognized medical use, and a lack of accepted safety parameters for the use of the drug. DMT has no approved medical use in the United States but can be used by researchers under a Schedule I research registration that requires approval from both the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA).
Paragraph Labeling Question 3
Despite its illegal status, DMT is used in some religious ceremonies and various settings for an “awakening” or to obtain deep spiritual insight. DMT is a white crystalline powder that is derived from certain plants found in Mexico, South America, and parts of Asia, such as Psychotria viridis and Banisteriopsis caapi.
It is typically consumed in the following ways:
- Vaporized or smoked in a pipe
- Consumed orally in brews like ayahuasca
- Snorted or injected on rare occasions.
Paragraph Labeling Question 4
The chemical root structure of DMT is similar to the anti-migraine drug sumatriptan, and it acts as a non-selective agonist at most or all of the serotonin receptors, particularly at the serotonin 5-ht2a receptor. Serotonin is a neurotransmitter that has a large effect on the majority of our brain cells. There is some evidence that DMT is also produced endogenously, in other words, it is produced naturally in the body, specifically in the pineal gland in the brain.
Paragraph Labeling Question 5
When smoked, the average dose of DMT is believed to be somewhere between 30 to 150 milligrams (mg), and the onset of action can be felt almost instantly. The effects peak and plateau for 3 to 5 minutes, and gradually drop off with the duration of effect totaling 30 to 45 minutes. When consumed as a brew, the dose is between 35 to 75 mg. Effects begin after 30 to 45 minutes, peak after 2 to 3 hours and are resolved in 4 to 6 hours.
Paragraph Labeling Question 6
The use of DMT can be traced back hundreds of years and is often associated with religious practices or rituals. The drug is the active ingredient in ayahuasca, a traditional South American brewed tea. DMT is used illicitly for its psychoactive, hallucinogenic effects. “Spiritual insight” is one of the most commonly reported positive side effects of the drug. The vast majority of new DMT users are already experienced with using psychedelic drugs, and as is the case with other illegal hallucinogens, users often obtain the drug through the Internet.
Paragraph Labeling Question 7
Research from the Global Drug Survey carried out in 2016 reported 2.24 percent of people used DMT in the last 12 months. It was among the least used drugs overall, with only kratom and modafinil used less. The main effect of DMT is psychological, with intense visual and auditory hallucinations, euphoria, and an altered sense of space, body, and time.
Paragraph Labeling Question 8
Many users describe profound, life-changing experiences such as visiting other worlds, talking with alien entities known as “DMT elves” or “machine elves,” and total shifts in the perception of identity and reality. When smoked, DMT produces brief yet intense visual and auditory hallucinations that have been described by users as an alternate reality, otherworldly, or a near-death experience. In comparison to other psychedelic drugs, such as LSD, ketamine, and magic mushrooms, recreational users of DMT consider it to have the lowest side effect profile.
Paragraph Labeling Question 9
- Increased heart rate
- Increased blood pressure
- Chest pain or tightness
- Dilated pupils
- Rapid rhythmic movements of the eye
- When taken orally, DMT can cause nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea.
Paragraph Labeling Question 10
Depending on the individual user, the DMT experience can range from intensely exciting to overwhelmingly frightening. The experience can be so powerful that users may have difficulty processing and integrating the “trip” into their real life. Mental side effects may linger for many days or weeks after ingestion of the drug.
When Can a Hip Replacement Patient Leave the Hospital?
Most hip replacement patients will be discharged within 2 to 5 days. Typically, a surgeon will okay a patient’s discharge once pain is under control and the patient is able to:
- Get in and out of bed and walk short distances (typically 150 to 300 feet) with the aid of assistive devices, such as a walker or crutches
- Eat meals sitting up
- Perform simple exercises
- Follow precautions to avoid dislocating the new hip
Many hospitals also require patients to be able to go up and down stairs (using a handrail and assistive devices) before discharge.
Some patients meet the criteria for discharge within 2 days. People who have had more than one joint replaced or who have certain pre-existing medical conditions, uncontrolled pain, or general weakness may be kept in the hospital longer.
Discharge to a rehabilitation facility
Patients who live in homes with lots of stairs, who do not have live-in caregivers, or who face other rehabilitation challenges may be discharged to a short-term care facility that provides health care and physical and occupational therapy. These stays may be covered by insurance, depending on the policy and patient circumstances.
When Can Hip Replacement Patients Drive?
Some patients may drive as soon as 2 weeks after surgery1, while others may need as long as 8 weeks.2 Importantly, drivers must not be taking any pain medications that impair driving skills—this is unsafe and illegal. In addition, reflexes and muscle strength should have returned to their pre-surgical levels. (As rehabilitation progresses, reflexes and muscle strength may be better than pre-surgical levels.)
Getting in and out of a car
Before returning to drive, just getting in and out of a car can be challenging, especially if the cars’ seats are low to the ground. Patients riding as passengers are advised to use:
- The front passenger seat with the seat base backed up as far as possible, to maximize legroom.
- A pillow or folded blanket can help raise the seat a few inches.
A nurse or physical therapist can teach a person how to get in and out of a car while minimizing the risk of falling or dislocation.
When Can Hip Replacement Patients Return to Work?
The first question many hip replacement candidates ask is “If I have this surgery, when can I return to work?” The recovery process is unique to each patient, but experts generally say that people with:
- Sedentary or desk jobs may be able to return to work after 4 or 6 weeks.
- Manual labor jobs, such as construction and landscaping, not to return to work. The frequent and repetitive pressure on the new hip may cause it to wear out prematurely, requiring a second surgery.
- Mixed labor jobs, which require frequent standing or occasional bending or lifting (e.g teachers) may return to work after approximately 3 months.
Prospective patients should talk to their surgeon about returning to work before surgery is scheduled.
Can a Hip Replacement Patient Play Sports?
Whether and when a patient can return to a specific sport depends on the patient, the type of hip replacement surgery, the hip prostheses, and the sport. In general, swimming, cycling and golfing are safe for people with hip replacements (once the surgical wound is healed).
Surgeons typically advise against participating in sports such as jogging and basketball that are likely to put pressure on the new hip and cause the prostheses to wear out prematurely. Certain sports, such as doubles tennis, may be played at a relaxed pace.
A patient should consult his or her surgeon about specific athletic goals.
When Can Hip Replacement Patients Have Sex?
People typically need to wait 4 to 6 weeks after surgery before having sex. During the first few months of resumed sexual relations, the hip replacement patient may need to be on the bottom (the “passive partner”). This puts less pressure on the new hip and may be more comfortable. After this time, though, most patients may use any sexual position that is comfortable.
Use a Walker or Cane
A walker or cane helps ensure that a person does not fall and dislocate or damage the new hip. Walkers and canes also signal to strangers to be more cautious. Strangers in public areas are generally less likely to bump, jostle, or startle a person using a cane or walker.
Most patients are able to decrease dependence on their canes and walkers over time.
Treat the Hip Pain
It is important that hip replacement patients get adequate pain relief. Uncontrolled pain can make it difficult to participate in rehabilitation exercises and can even lead to chronic pain.
Some patients do not want to take pain medications because they worry about potential side effects or fear addiction. These patients can talk to their doctors, who can address concerns and come up with a pain management plan that minimizes side effects and risks.
OCCUPATIONAL ENGLISH TEST
WRITING SUB-TEST: Nursing
TIME ALLOWED: READING TIME: 5 MINUTES
WRITING TIME: 40 MINUTES
Read the case notes below and complete the writing task which follows.
You are a nurse at Imperial County School, Yarra Glen, where 90% of the students come from villages close to thickly forested areas where wildfires are common. Recently many children had breathing issues due to smoke.
- Take extra care to protect children from wildfire smoke.
- Children with asthma, allergies, or chronic health issues may have more trouble breathing when smoke or ash is present.
Before wildfire season:
- Stock up on medicine. Store a 7 to 10-day supply of prescription medicines in a waterproof, childproof container to take with you if you evacuate.
- Buy groceries you won’t need to cook. Frying or grilling especially can make indoor air pollution worse.
- Talk to your child’s healthcare provider.
- If your child has asthma, allergies, or chronic health issues plan how they can stay indoors more often during a smoke event.
During a wildfire smoke event:
- Pay attention to air quality.
- Follow instructions about exercise and going outside for “sensitive individuals.”
- Check for school closings.
- Remember that dust masks, surgical masks, bandanas and breathing through a wet cloth will not protect your child from smoke and that N95 respirator masks are not made to fit children and may not protect them.
- Think about evacuating if your child has trouble breathing or other symptoms that do not get better.
- If your child has severe trouble breathing, is very sleepy, or will not eat or drink, reduce their exposure to smoke and get medical help right away.
After a wildfire:
- Do not return home until safety assured.
- Smoke remains indoor and outdoor days after wildfires have ended. Continue to check local air quality.
- Children – should not do cleanup work;
- Children away from ash. Make sure ash and debris have been removed before you bring your child back home or to school.
- Avoid direct contact with ash and wash it off child’s skin and mouth and rise it from eyes immediately.
- Contact healthcare provider if your child has trouble breathing, shortness of breath, a cough that won’t stop, or other symptoms that do not go away.
- Call 1800 022 222 or go right away to an emergency department for medical emergencies.
Using the information in the case notes, write a letter to parents of the students (Address: Parents, Imperial County School, Yarra Glen, Melbourne – 3775.
In your answer:
- Expand the relevant notes into complete sentences
- Do not use note form
- Refrain from copying the same lines given in the case notes.
- Use letter format.
The body of the letter should be approximately 180–200 words.